Thirteen Colonies facts for kids
The Southern Colonies within British America consisted of the Province of Maryland, the Colony of Virginia, the Province of Carolina (in split into North and South Carolina) and the Province of lovemeen.com , the newly created colonies of East Florida and West Florida would be added to the Southern Colonies by Great Britain until when the Spanish Empire took back Florida. Oct 25, · The southern American colonies needed them to work on the tobacco and rice plantations. By seventeen fifty, almost twenty-five percent of the total number of people in the American colonies were.
There were a few reasons for the colonies founding. Some people thought they would make a lot of money in new goods in America that could not be found in Europesuch as tobacco. Others left to find freedom of kknown or just to make a new start.
Some wanted to be in charge and change things that they did not like back at England. The folonies colony was Virginia. It was started in at Jamestown. The last colony of coloniws thirteen to be started was Georgia in The colonies are often divided into three groups.
New England had small farms and focused on fishing, forestry trees and lumbercooonies, and small industry to eouthern money. The South had large plantation farms that grew tobacco and later cotton. Plantations were farmed first by indentured servants people who would work for a period of years in return for passage to America and landand later by slaves. The Middle Colonies had medium-sized farms. These colonies also had people from many different cultures with many different beliefs.
All three regions were tied to the " Atlantic economy ". Colonists built merchant vesselsand merchants traded slaves, agricultural goods, goldfish, lumber, and manufactured goods whst America, the West IndiesEurope and Africa. After the French and Indian WarGreat Britain made new taxes and other laws that angered some people in the colonies. This led to war between Great Britain and its former colonies. This war was called the American Revolutionary War. The colonies said whatt were independent of Great Britain on July 4,in the Declaration of Independence.
The colonies became known as the United States of America. Jamestownthe first permanent English settlement, was established here in New Netherland: 17th-century Dutch claims in areas that later became English colonies are shown in red and yellow.
Present U. Territorial changes following the French and Indian War; land held by the British before werw shown in red, land gained by Britain in is shown in pink. Join, or Die by Benjamin Franklin was recycled to encourage the former colonies to unite against British rule. Map of the Thirteen Colonies red and nearby colonial areas — just before the Revolutionary War. Thirteen Colonies facts for kids Kids Encyclopedia Facts.
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The Colonial Elite
This area had good coastal harbors for shipping. Climate and land were ideal for agriculture. These colonies were known as the "breadbasket" because of the large amounts of barley, wheat, oats, and rye that were grown here. Religion. Religion in the Middle Colonies was varied as no single religion seemed to dominate the entire region. While known as the Great Awakening in the United States, the movement is referred to as the Evangelical Revival in Britain. In England, the major leaders of the Evangelical Revival were three Anglican priests, the brothers John and Charles Wesley and their friend George lovemeen.comer, they founded what would become lovemeen.com had been members of a religious society at Oxford. Apr 15, · The Thirteen Colonies were British North American colonies in which is now the eastern seaboard of the United lovemeen.com were a few reasons for the colonies founding. Some people thought they would make a lot of money in new goods in America that could not be found in Europe, such as lovemeen.com left to find freedom of religion or just to make a new start.
The revival movement permanently affected Protestantism as adherents strove to renew individual piety and religious devotion. The Great Awakening marked the emergence of Anglo-American evangelicalism as a trans-denominational movement within the Protestant churches. In the United States , the term Great Awakening is most often used, while in the United Kingdom the movement is referred to as the Evangelical Revival.
Building on the foundations of older traditions— Puritanism , Pietism and Presbyterianism —major leaders of the revival such as George Whitefield , John Wesley and Jonathan Edwards articulated a theology of revival and salvation that transcended denominational boundaries and helped forge a common evangelical identity.
Revivalists added to the doctrinal imperatives of Reformation Protestantism an emphasis on providential outpourings of the Holy Spirit. Extemporaneous preaching gave listeners a sense of deep personal conviction of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ and fostered introspection and commitment to a new standard of personal morality. Revival theology stressed that religious conversion was not only intellectual assent to correct Christian doctrine but had to be a " new birth " experienced in the heart.
Revivalists also taught that receiving assurance of salvation was a normal expectation in the Christian life. While the Evangelical Revival united evangelicals across various denominations around shared beliefs, it also led to division in existing churches between those who supported the revivals and those who did not.
Opponents accused the revivals of fostering disorder and fanaticism within the churches by enabling uneducated, itinerant preachers and encouraging religious enthusiasm. In England, evangelical Anglicans would grow into an important constituency within the Church of England , and Methodism would develop out of the ministries of Whitefield and Wesley. In the American colonies the Awakening caused the Congregational and Presbyterian churches to split, while it strengthened both the Methodist and Baptist denominations.
It had little immediate impact on most Lutherans , Quakers , and non-Protestants,  but later gave rise to a schism among Quakers see Quaker History which persists to this day. Evangelical preachers "sought to include every person in conversion, regardless of gender, race, and status". Historian Sydney E.
Ahlstrom sees the Great Awakening as part of a "great international Protestant upheaval" that also created pietism in the Lutheran and Reformed churches of continental Europe. Significantly, the pietists placed less emphasis on traditional doctrinal divisions between Protestant churches, focusing rather on religious experience and affections. Pietism prepared Europe for revival, and it usually occurred in areas where pietism was strong. The Moravians came to Herrnhut as refugees, but under Zinzendorf's guidance, the group enjoyed a religious revival.
Soon, the community became a refuge for other Protestants as well, including German Lutherans, Reformed Christians and Anabaptists. The church began to grow, and Moravian societies would be established in England where they would help foster the Evangelical Revival as well.
Together, they founded what would become Methodism. They had been members of a religious society at Oxford University called the Holy Club and "Methodists" due to their methodical piety and rigorous asceticism. This society was modeled on the collegia pietatis cell groups used by pietists for Bible study , prayer and accountability. Scougal wrote that many people mistakenly understood Christianity to be "Orthodox Notions and Opinions" or "external Duties" or "rapturous Heats and extatic Devotion".
It is Christ formed within us. After a period of spiritual struggle, Whitefield experienced conversion during Lent in His style was dramatic and his preaching appealed to his audience's emotions. At times, he wept or impersonated Bible characters. By the time he left England for the colony of Georgia in December , Whitefield had become a celebrity. Wesley was impressed by their faith and piety, especially their belief that it was normal for a Christian to have assurance of faith.
The failure of his mission and encounters with the Moravians led Wesley to question his own faith. He wrote in his journal, "I who went to America to convert others was never myself converted to God. Wesley recounted that "I felt my heart strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone for salvation, and an assurance was given me that he had taken away my sins, even mine , and saved me from the law of sin and death.
Afterwards, he traveled to Herrnhut and met Zinzendorf in person. John Wesley returned to England in September Both John and Charles were preaching in London and winning converts. Whitefield stayed in Georgia for three months to establish Bethesda Orphanage before returning to England in December. Many pulpits were closed to him, and he had to struggle against Anglicans who opposed the Methodists and the "doctrine of the New Birth". Whitefield wrote of his opponents, "I am fully convinced there is a fundamental difference between us and them.
They believe only an outward Christ, we further believe that He must be inwardly formed in our hearts also.
Further, Whitefield violated protocol by preaching in another priest's parish without permission. Within a week, he was preaching to crowds of 10, By March, Whitefield had moved on to preach elsewhere. By May, he was preaching to London crowds of 50, He left the Bristol societies in the care of John Wesley. Eventually, however, Wesley changed his mind, claiming that "all the world [is] my parish". Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities, Wesley and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
Wesley and his assistant preachers organised the new converts into Methodist societies. They also took part in love feasts which allowed for the sharing of testimony , a key feature of early Methodism. John Wesley's organisational skills during and after the peak of revivalism established him as the primary founder of the Methodist movement.
By the time of Wesley's death in , there were over 71, Methodists in England and 43, in America. The Evangelical Revival first broke out in Wales. In , Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland experienced a religious conversion and began preaching to large crowds throughout South Wales. Their preaching initiated the Welsh Methodist revival. The origins of revivalism in Scotland stretch back to the s.
In addition, radical Presbyterian clergy held outdoor conventicles throughout southern and western Scotland centering on the communion season. These revivals would also spread to Ulster and featured "marathon extemporaneous preaching and excessive popular enthusiasm. In the early 18th century, the 13 Colonies were religiously diverse.
In New England , the Congregational churches were the established religion ; whereas in the religiously tolerant Middle Colonies , the Quakers , Dutch Reformed , Anglican , Presbyterian , Lutheran , Congregational , and Baptist churches all competed with each other on equal terms.
In the Southern colonies , the Anglican church was officially established, though there were significant numbers of Baptists, Quakers and Presbyterians. In response to these trends, ministers influenced by New England Puritanism , Scots-Irish Presbyterianism , and European Pietism began calling for a revival of religion and piety.
The first revival to receive widespread publicity was that precipitated by an earthquake in As they began to be publicized more widely, revivals transformed from merely local to regional and transatlantic events. In the s and s, an evangelical party took shape in the Presbyterian churches of the Middle Colonies led by William Tennent , Sr.
He established a seminary called the Log College where he trained nearly 20 Presbyterian revivalists for the ministry, including his three sons and Samuel Blair. Historian Sydney Ahlstrom described Frelinghuysen as "an important herald, if not the father of the Great Awakening".
Under Frelinghuysen's influence, Tennent came to believe that a definite conversion experience followed by assurance of salvation was the key mark of a Christian. The most influential evangelical revival was the Northampton revival of — under the leadership of Congregational minister Jonathan Edwards.
Signs of religious commitment among the laity increased, especially among the town's young people. Edwards wrote to Boston minister Benjamin Colman that the town "never was so full of Love, nor so full of Joy, nor so full of distress as it has lately been. I never saw the Christian spirit in Love to Enemies so exemplified, in all my Life as I have seen it within this half-year. At a time when Enlightenment rationalism and Arminian theology was popular among some Congregational clergy, Edwards held to traditional Calvinist doctrine.
He understood conversion to be the experience of moving from spiritual deadness to joy in the knowledge of one's election that one had been chosen by God for salvation.
While a Christian might have several conversion moments as part of this process, Edwards believed there was a single point in time when God regenerated an individual, even if the exact moment could not be pinpointed. The Northampton revival featured instances of what critics called enthusiasm but what supporters believed were signs of the Holy Spirit. Services became more emotional and some people had visions and mystical experiences. Edwards cautiously defended these experiences as long as they led individuals to a greater belief in God's glory rather than in self-glorification.
Similar experiences would appear in most of the major revivals of the 18th century. Edwards wrote an account of the Northampton revival, A Faithful Narrative , which was published in England through the efforts of prominent evangelicals John Guyse and Isaac Watts.
The publication of his account made Edwards a celebrity in Britain and influenced the growing revival movement in that nation. A Faithful Narrative would become a model on which other revivals would be conducted. Whitefield returned to the Colonies in November His first stop was in Philadelphia where he initially preached at Christ Church , Philadelphia's Anglican church, and then preached to a large outdoor crowd from the courthouse steps. He then preached in many Presbyterian churches.
In the Middle Colonies, he was popular in the Dutch and German communities as well as among the British. Lutheran pastor Henry Muhlenberg told of a German woman who heard Whitefield preach and, though she spoke no English, later said she had never before been so edified. In , Whitefield began touring New England. He landed in Newport, Rhode Island, on September 14, , and preached several times in the Anglican church. He then moved on to Boston, Massachusetts, where he spent a week.
The next day, he preached outdoors again to about 15, people. After traveling as far as Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he returned to Boston on October 12 to preach to 30, people before continuing his tour. Whitefield then traveled to Northampton at the invitation of Jonathan Edwards.
He preached twice in the parish church while Edwards was so moved that he wept. From there he traveled down the coast, reaching New York on October Whitefield's assessment of New England's churches and clergy prior to his intervention was negative. And the Reason why Congregations have been so dead, is because dead Men preach to them.
Whitefield met Gilbert Tennent on Staten Island and asked him to preach in Boston to continue the revival there.