Native American civil rights
The Dawes Act of (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of ; named after Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts) regulated land rights on tribal territories within the United States. It authorized the President of the United States to subdivide Native American tribal communal landholdings into allotments for Native American heads of families and individuals. Jan 26, · The Dawes Act, while not a household name, was perhaps the single most devastating government policy of them all. Also known as the General Allotment Act of , the Dawes Act resulted in the loss of 90 million acres (36 million hectares) of Native lands from to — the equivalent of two-thirds of all tribal landholdings at the time.
The Homestead Act and the exodusters. Chinese immigrants and Mexican Americans in the age of westward expansion. The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee. Westward expansion: economic development. Westward expansion: social and what is the best camera to buy development.
Practice: The American West. Current timeTotal duration MIG Theme. Unit 6: Learning Objective B. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Video transcript - [Instructor] In other videos, we've discussed the causes and effects of westward expansion in the 19th century, focusing on the period that began with the discovery of gold in California in and ending shortly after the Civil War. But westward expansion was a long process. Eight new states entered the Union between and And not until nearly the turn of the 20th century how to make gold with blacksmithing 4.3 the superintendent of the US Census declare that the frontier was now closed.
US territories stretched all the way to the Pacific Ocean. We've talked a bit about what caused people to move west and what effects the immigration of millions of non-native people west of the Mississippi had on that region and on the United States as a whole before and during the Civil War. In this video, I want to pick up the story after the Civil War and discuss how westward expansion affected the society and culture of the West at the end of how to file income tax return online india 19th century.
Let's quickly review some of the causes of westward expansion that were already established by the end what is the meaning of bucks the Civil War. Starting in the s, Americans and European immigrants began moving west looking for farmland.
And the California Gold Rush of brought people from all over the world into the region to either pan for gold or to make some money off the people who were panning for gold. The construction of the transcontinental railroad also provided many jobs for those who didn't strike it rich. The US government facilitated this westward expansion by granting millions of acres to railroad companies, making it easier to get west and to get goods from the West back East.
The government also encouraged settlement through grants of acres of free land to anyone willing to improve it over the course of five years.
Lastly, many American migrants were convinced through cultural messaging that American civilization was divinely ordained to occupy North America from Atlantic to Pacific in an ideology known as Manifest Destiny. All of these things continued to motivate westward expansion in the years after the Civil War, what was the dawes act in 1887 meant to do there were a few unique aspects in this era that intensified the changes wrought by westward expansion. First, the US government began to take a new approach towards its interactions with Native Americans.
Instead of treating Native American tribes as independent nations, the government began to cast them as wards of the state, relics of an earlier time that had to take up American ways or face extinction.
They began to confine Native Americans to reservations and classify any individual or group that refused as hostile.
Another related thing that changed was that after the Civil War, the US Army could apply its full might to subduing the West through a series of conflicts with Native Americans called the Indian Wars.
One thing I find fascinating about these conflicts was that many of the generals who led campaigns in the Indian Wars were former Union generals who had fought to end slavery in the South during the Civil War, including Oliver O. Howard, the commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau. What do you think their approach to Native Americans versus African Americans says about how they conceived of American citizenship in this time period? The effects of westward expansion also intensified after the Civil War.
As we've already mentioned, one effect of Americans' westward push was violence against Native Americans and other minorities. The US Army forced Native Americans onto reservations or hunted them down when Native Americans attempted to prevent white settlers from encroaching on those reservations, like when gold was discovered on the Sioux reservation in the Black Hills of South Dakota.
And while the Lakotas were giving up their weapons, one rifle accidentally discharged. The US Army then massacred somewhere between and men, women, and children. Other minorities in the West were also subject to racial violence including Mexican Americans, who were driven off their lands by force, and Chinese immigrants, who were targeted in race riots throughout California. Minorities also faced the loss of their land and their cultures in the West.
The most significant land loss came as a result of the Dawes Act of The Dawes Act sought to force Native Americans to stop living communally and take up American culture and farming by splitting up reservations and awarding acres of land to each head of household, sort of like the Homestead Act.
But unlike the Homestead Act, Native Americans had to improve the land and behave like whites for 25 years to get title and American citizenship, not just five. And due to corruption in administering this policy, Native Americans were placed on the worst land for farming, or their land allotments were given to white settlers instead.
All in all, the Dawes Act resulted in the loss of over 80 million acres of Native American land. Similarly, government agents turned a deaf ear towards the claims of Mexican Americans whose land was claimed by white settlers even though Mexican Americans had been US citizens since the end of the Mexican War. The same impulse to force Native Americans to assimilate into American living patterns also drove the creation of Indian boarding schools in this era.
Native children were removed from their homes and sent to boarding schools like the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. What is the meaning of helen they would be forced to cut off their long hair, change into American-style clothing, and take up new American-sounding names. These schools lasted until the s. Chinese immigrants, by contrast, were judged incapable of assimilation.
InCongress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, the first immigration restriction to prevent all members of an ethnic group from entering the United States. Restrictions on Chinese immigration would not be completely abolished until There were also some far-reaching environmental transformations resulting from westward expansion.
One of these was the near extinction of the American bison, also known as the buffalo. Huge herds of buffalo roamed the American West for all of recorded history in the area.
Plains Indians had over-hunted them in the years before large-scale immigration to the West, but the coming of the railroad signed the buffalos' death warrant. There were about 15 million buffalo in the West at the end of the Civil War, but less than 20 years later there were fewer than 1, buffalo remaining due to whites hunting them for sport or clearing them from rail lines.
This left Plains Indians, who depended on the buffalo for meat and clothing, in a what do magic mushrooms look like in australia of near-starvation, making it even more difficult for them to resist being forced onto reservations. Plains Indians were also affected by the development of barbed wire in this era, which white settlers used to fence off what had been communal grazing lands.
This was also a hardship for cowboys, who once had driven herds of cattle to railroad depots over long stretches of open range. By the end of the 19th century, there was little to no open range left at all. Lastly, the spread of settlers into the arid western part of the Great Plains led to massive irrigation projects in order to supply lands that weren't really naturally suited to farming with water.
This what pharmaceutical company makes verapamil damming and diverting rivers and the use of farming techniques that would later contribute to the ravages of the Dust Bowl in the s. Who has access to water and for what purposes is still a major source of conflict in the American West. So as we look forward into the 20th century from our vantage point here at the edge of the American Frontier, let's take some time to think about what the story of westward expansion tells us about how Americans thought about citizenship and access to resources in this time period.
How will those ideas influence the United States once it begins to step on the world stage and look for new frontiers outside of North America?
The American West. Up Next.
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A nine-part series chronicling the turbulent history of one of the most extraordinary landscapes on earth. Beginning when the land belonged only to Native Americans and ending in the 20th century. The Dawes Act also promised US citizenship to Native Americans who took advantage of the allotment policy and ‘adopted the habits of civilized life’. This meant that the education of Native American children – many in boarding schools away from the influence of their parents – was considered an essential part of the civilising process. May 30, · The act was meant to favor the ordinary American, and to make assimilated citizens out of immigrants, African Americans, and, through later legislation in the form of the Dawes Act, the forced assimilation of Indians, thought to be for their own good.
By: Dave Roos Jan 26, In the long, dark history of the United States government's mistreatment of Native Americans, most people are familiar with the Trail of Tears , in which approximately 15, Native American men, women and children died during forced relocation from their tribal homelands in the American Southeast to Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma.
Over the next century, Congress passed a series of laws that systematically stripped tribes of their lands, selling them to white settlers and corporations. The Dawes Act, while not a household name, was perhaps the single most devastating government policy of them all.
Also known as the General Allotment Act of , the Dawes Act resulted in the loss of 90 million acres 36 million hectares of Native lands from to — the equivalent of two-thirds of all tribal landholdings at the time.
Nineteenth-century Americans, driven by Manifest Destiny and rapid industrialization, were hungry for more and more land upon which to farm, ranch, harvest timber, mine minerals and build railroads. Because of earlier relocation policies that resettled Native Americans in Western reservations, many large tracts of attractive Western land were in the hands of Indians by the s. Politicians and businessmen who saw tribal land ownership as an obstacle to American progress were constantly searching for a solution to the so-called " Indian Problem ," and they found it in an unlikely source: progressive social reformers.
He explains that many well-intentioned Americans were appalled at the desperate conditions on Western reservations, where hunting was forbidden and starvation was rampant. Backed by early anthropologists, these social reformers believed that private land ownership and cultural assimilation as farmers and ranchers were key to saving the Indians from their own "savage" status.
As a result, two very different groups — land-hungry capitalists and social progressives — threw their support behind the General Allotment Act of called the Dawes Act for Sen. Henry Dawes of Massachusetts, the bill's lead proponent in Congress. This law gave the U. The idea was that the American Indian landowners would emulate the success of their new white neighbors and leave behind their tribal ways to become profitable farmers and ranchers themselves.
Before the Dawes Act, Native American land including reservations was communally owned by the tribe and the fruits of labor were shared collectively by all tribal members. For most 19th-century Americans, that traditional Native way of life was antithetical to American ideals of personal responsibility and capitalism.
Teddy Roosevelt favorably described the Dawes Act as "a mighty pulverizing engine to break up the tribal mass," adding that "the effort should be to steadily make the Indian work like any other man on his own ground.
Under the Dawes Act, tribal lands would be divided into allotments between 40 and acres in size 16 and 65 hectares and legally changed from community property to privately owned parcels of land. In some cases, Native American families were given the option of choosing their allotment, but in most cases it was assigned to them by officers of the U.
Department of the Interior. Once all of the Native American families received their small allotments, there was plenty of tribal land left over. This "surplus land" the Dawes Act said , could be sold to non-Native settlers and corporations with the proceeds held in a government account to be used exclusively "for the education and civilization of the Indians. That surplus land amounted to 60 million acres 24 million hectares — nearly half of all existing tribal territory — that was immediately ceded to the U.
In an insidious twist, the framers of the Dawes Act added a stipulation that Native Americans weren't "competent" to own their allotments outright. Instead, the deeds to the land would be held in a government trust for 25 years, after which they would be transferred to the Native individual.
No such waiting period existed for white settlers and corporations. Hirsch says that U. But while the Dawes Act was a clear "win" for white America, it was absolutely devastating for Native people. First, says Pevar, "the majority of Indians didn't want to become farmers and ranchers. Plus, you needed money to buy equipment, cattle and seeds, money that they didn't have.
Here they were with hundreds of acres of land that they couldn't even use. In most cases, the parcels that were allotted to Native families sat vacant until the year trust period was over and the land could be sold. But here again was another hidden stipulation.
After the year trust period expired, the land was suddenly subject to state and local property taxes, which most Native landowners couldn't pay. So, the land would be seized by the tax court and sold at auction.
Later laws passed by Congress made it even easier to sell off Native American-owned allotments before the year waiting period. The Burke Act of authorized the Secretary of the Interior to deem a Native landowner "competent" to receive the deed to his own land, at which point taxes were due.
This often happened without the Native landowner's knowledge or consent, and before he knew it his land was in forfeiture and sold to the highest bidder. An additional 27 million acres of Native land were lost through these additional laws and amendments to the Dawes Act, including the so-called "Dead Indian Act" of that allowed Native heirs to sell their family land before the year trust period was up. So much land was lost that even the federal government was concerned. In , a damning report written by the Department of the Interior titled " The Problem of Indian Administration " described the state of abject poverty and disease in which most Native Americans were living.
The authors of the report criticized the faulty logic that handing private land to Native families would automatically turn them into successful farmers.
Congress repealed the Dawes Act in as part of the larger Indian Reorganization Act, but the systematic theft of 90 million acres 36 million hectares of Native lands was already accomplished. Court cases related to allotment and American Indian land tenure are still going on. The Dawes Rolls , lists of Native Americans given allotments among the "Five Civilized Tribes," has become a valuable genealogical tool for tracing Native ancestry. North America. American History. The West. A Blackfoot chief regards the invasion of his hunting ground by the Canadian Pacific Railway, Henry Dawes, the author of the Dawes Act, once said that to be civilized meant to "wear civilized clothes April 22, White settlers rushed to claim Cherokee land in the Oklahoma Territory, after the Dawes Act of , which had robbed the Cherokee of their rights to the land.
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