Timeline: A Path to Lightweight Materials in Cars and Trucks
Oct 11, · Car upholstery from carpets and door panels to car seats are manufactured with materials made from plastic strands. LEAD. No lead-based paint was used to make your car. It is, however, used for wheel balancing weights as well as in car batteries. LEATHER. It’s not just for luxury cars. Cars are made of a wide variety of materials, such as steel, aluminum, copper, glass, rubber, and special fibers. First, a raw material production company takes individual raw materials and turns them into materials that can be used to make car parts, and delivers them to .
Scale models or model kits are produced by the millions how to print from apple pages give hours of pleasure to hobbyists. They're sold in specialized hobby and craft stores as well as toy, department, and drug stores—even supermarkets may carry them. Many of the same engineering skills go into producing scale models as into the real machines represented.
Model kits are made in approximately five skill levels. Snap-together models provide all the pieces with tiny tabs that fit in specially shaped holes. The plastic pieces are made in the same colors as the original; and virtually no tools, adhesives, paint, or other equipment are needed to build them. The how to get rid of mice holes in yard parts simply snap together in a sequence depicted on an instruction sheet; these models are an excellent introduction to the kinds of pieces in a model kit and prepare a novice builder for the next step.
The next three levels are beginner, intermediate, and advanced. The level is described on the box containing the kit, and, as the names suggest, the kits become increasingly complicated with what to wear with a blue and white striped skirt steps in assembling and detailing the models. The most advanced kits are called customized kits and provide the model builder with a variety of styles of engines, bumpers, hubcaps, and other details of an automobile for exampleas well as options for making a truly unique model suiting the builder's imagination.
Model-making is as old as civilization. Scale models of buildings, boats, and furniture were buried in tombs of ancient Egyptians to represent possessions the dead took into the next world. Many ancient models survived in the tombs while the original objects did not; these have given historians an understanding of what life in ancient civilizations was like.
During the Napoleonic WarsFrench prisoners of war carved beautiful model warships from wood scraps; these models are so detailed that they have become documents of warfare and ships lost at sea. They are also highly prized today among antique collectors. During the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, inventors of new tools, machines, artworks, and other objects began by building models of their ideas. Industrial technology was found to have its own beauty, and large machines like locomotives were admired and copied in miniature.
Early in the twentieth century model ships and airplanes were sold in kits. Balsa wood pieces were machine-cut to fit together easily and could be painted and rigged like the originals, although they were fragile.
In the s, some firms produced scale models of their products out of metal and wood as promotional models. Citroen, the French car manufacturer, produced delightful models that are now valued collectibles. World War II moved modeling into a full-scale industry and hobby for two reasons.
First, plastics were invented and perfected during the years before and what time is ireland v wales the war. Their versatility made them ideal for mass-produced model kits.
Second, the machines of the war stimulated the public's interest in modeling. Slim fighters and heavy bombers intrigued many hobbyists who saw the real aircraft flying overhead on the way to war. The exploits of navy ships, both small and large, in the Pacific also fired imaginations.
When soldiers and sailors returned home, they had more time and money for recreation, including building models of the machines they knew so well. Monogram Models introduced its first kits of warships in The returning war veterans were also able to afford the automobiles that rolled off Detroit assembly lines; they also built models of the cars they owned—and the ones the dreamed of. InRevell introduced its first all-plastic model kit of an early automobile: a classic Maxwell, in which the driver was a scaled-down version of radio comedian Jack Benny.
By the mids, more detailed kits and models that could be customized appeared. By the s scale modeling was a full-fledged hobby with thousands of models covering hundreds of subjects. Bythe scale-model industry had produced more automobiles than all the automotive giants of Detroit combined. In the s, the scale-model industry expanded into ancient history and science fiction.
Models of dinosaurs that once roamed the earth, monsters like Godzilla, superheroes like Superman, television characters like the Lone Ranger, and celebrities like Elvis Presley were mass-produced in scale form. The scale-model manufacturers also provided outlets for the public's interest in the Space Race during the s, and models of the newest spacecraft were often on the hobby store shelves before the real-life vessel had taken flight. Fantasy followed here, too, with models of starships and intergalactic craft that have flown on television and in the movies.
As techniques for precision casting of true-color parts continued to improve, scale models became important teaching tools. Detailed anatomical figures that can be snapped apart and reassembled are members of many classrooms, as just one example. Plastic is the essential raw material for the majority of scale models made today. The plastic used to mold the parts is purchased in bulk quantities by the manufacturer. These pellets are purchased in common colors, but additional pigments can be added to the plastic while it is being melted.
Printed items, including decals, the instruction sheet, and the box are also important parts of model kit. The box front usually bears a full-color photo or an artist's detailed depiction of the completed model, or a photo of the original object like an automobile. Designs, layouts, photos, and artwork are prepared by artists in the model-maker's design studio; they are printed by specialized printers.
Paints and glue for assembling and detailing the model are not part of the kits. These are manufactured and sold separately because they have shorter shelf-lives, might leak inside the box, and could damage model parts as they move.
Major model manufacturers produce or market their own brands of paint, glue, and assembly tools. Other raw materials for models include balsa wood. Before the development of plastics, this was the prime material for model building, and it was sold in lengths and widths like small boards.
Sometimes the balsa wood had outlines stamped on it that the builder could follow when cutting out pieces; other times an appropriate assortment of wood was packaged together with a set of patterns and instructions printed on paper for the model builder to follow. More often, the model builder used imagination and skill to scale, cut, assemble, and detail wood models.
Balsa wood is still sold for model building, but it is far outclassed in volume by the plastic model industry. For the scale model of a classic automobile, for example, the design process begins with pure research: taking hundreds of photographs of a working example of the car. The car is photographed inside and out; pictures are taken of every detail and from many angles, and measurements are photographed along with the object for the designer to use in the studio to reproduce the car exactly.
For a new car design, car manufacturers give model makers computerized information on part specifications—sometimes even before the first actual automobile has been assembled—in a highly confidential process. The model designer uses computer-aided drafting and design CADD software to sort this information and create the measurements and configuration that will be used to make a scale design.
The designer transfers this information to a set of drawings that will be used to make the molds for the model. This process can consume several hundred hours of engineering time. From photographs, computer data, and paper drawings, the design moves to pattern-making phase.
Skilled artists follow the designer's drawings and carve out a pattern model from balsa or other soft wood. The pattern model is made at two to three times larger than the scale of the model kit, allowing additional details to be added to the pattern.
This also proves how to get rid of water retention after giving birth accuracy of design and provides a basis for all of the molds that will be made of the car parts. As they carve the pieces, the pattern makers fit them together.
Accuracy in pattern-making is within several ten-thousandths of an inch fractions of a millimeter. When the wooden pattern model is complete, each part is coated with an epoxy resin, a plastic material that hardens as it cures. The wooden piece is removed from the resin, and the resin has trapped the shape of the piece in a cavity mold. A core mold of resin is made from the cavity mold; the two fit closely together, but there is a small space between them. The plastic model part will be formed in this space.
Preparation of the wooden pattern and the resin molds takes over 1, hours. Meanwhile, other design engineers use the design drawings to lay out the "tool," the metal cast of a number of parts that will be molded on a single form of plastic called a tree. The tree is usually roughly rectangular along its outer edge so it will fit in a box. Several standard box sizes are used. From the central "trunk" of the tree, a number of plastic "branches" or arms protrude.
The end of each branch narrows to a node where it joins a piece of the model. The model piece can be snapped off for assembly. The tool designers also use CAD to map out the tool layout.
They must design the orientation of each model piece on the tree to precise angles so that, when the plastic is injected in the tool, it fills all the cavities.
The trees are also designed to release quickly from the mold. The resin molds are used to make the individual tools for each of the model parts, using a pantograph to copy the exact shape of each piece and draw it at the smaller scale of the actual model. The pantograph has two needle-like parts: one is run over the surface of the resin mold while the second, a cutting blade, carves the steel to the same shape at the correct scale.
When the tool maker has completed the scaled tool, he polishes it to a high sheen and adds more details by hand. Some of these details are too fine to be seen by the naked eye. Another set of designers works on the paper portions of the kit.
To develop the instructions, the designers take the pattern model and sometimes samples of the first production run of the plastic model apart and reassemble it. They describe the steps as they go, writing and drawing them as instructions.
Other artists look at the photographs of the real automobile and design decals for the model. These may be copies of real decals on the car, or they may be other design features like racing stripes. Sometimes, more research is needed to capture these details. The illustrations on the box lid are also created. These serve the model builder as a color reference guide, so they must be true to both the original automobile and the decals made for the model.
The illustrations on the lid may be photographs of the real car or artists' impressions. The box lid for a model of a Fokker triplane, for example, may show the Red Baron's famous airplane in a dog-fight. Elsewhere on the lid, the artists describe the kit, its level of difficulty, the parts enclosed, and the manufacturer's details. In a separate part of the injection-molding machine, the fine, confetti-like pellets of plastic are poured into a storage hopper above the machine.
The liquid plastic is pumped into the cavity of the injection molding machine where the tool is contained. The pressurized liquid plastic is injected into the tool at a pressure of 1, lbs per square in 58 kg per square cm. Aided by the careful layout within the tool, the combination of high pressure and high heat forces the liquid plastic into every crevice of the tool.
Most cars intended for mass production and consumer use have bodies made from either steel or aluminum. Both are strong metals, but steel is cheaper than aluminum. Aluminum, however, is lighter and does not rust, and so is used for more expensive luxury and performance models than steel. Oct 17, · The problem is that some of the joining techniques that fuse multiple materials together to make vehicles lighter can present serious challenges at the end of life. The ability to recover these materials in a closed-loop is severely limited. With new car design using more and more of these multi-material components, this is a growing concern.
When deciding what to make their cars from, manufacturers have to take many things into account, including cost, weight and durability. Different materials have different properties and so are useful for different types of car. Most cars intended for mass production and consumer use have bodies made from either steel or aluminum. Both are strong metals, but steel is cheaper than aluminum. Aluminum, however, is lighter and does not rust, and so is used for more expensive luxury and performance models than steel.
Plastics are being used more frequently in modern car manufacturing. Cars like the Chrysler CCV are made with all plastic bodies with a mind to fuel economy, as well as recycling when the car comes to the end of its workable life.
Plastic is also easy to work, and repairs to plastic body panels are cheap. Carbon fiber is very light and very strong, meaning that fast cars can get the best out of their engines. It is also expensive, however, and so is primarily used in high-end sports and racing cars. George Reece began writing professionally in as a music critic at the "Leeds Student" newspaper.
He holds a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy from the University of Leeds and A-levels in music, theater studies and English literature. Carbon Fiber Carbon fiber is very light and very strong, meaning that fast cars can get the best out of their engines.