Seven Common Ways to Generate a Sine Wave
Feb 26, · A sine wave generator is a type of electronic equipment that generates an oscillating frequency in a sinusoidal pattern. Most are relatively small, with the vast majority being hand-held. There are a couple of different reasons why these sorts of tools are important, but most have to do with measuring either sound or electric frequency, both of which typically take on a sine pattern. A sine wave generator is a device which can generate sine waves. Sine waves are waveforms which alternate in values during a cycle. It has a peak value, the highest amplitude it attains and a trough value, the lowest amplitude it obtains. The sine wave in between the peak and trough takes on an infinite number of values in between the peak and.
By Louis E. Frenzel View In Digital Edition. The sine wave is a naturally occurring signal shape in communications and other electronic applications. Many awve products use signals of the sine wave form.
Audio, radio, and power equipment usually generates or processes sine waves. As it turns out, there are literally dozens of ways to generate a sine wave. This article presents some popular methods you should be familiar with. Wat popular low frequency audio, and up to about kHz or so sine wave oscillator is the Wien bridge shown in Figure 1.
The popular Wien bridge oscillator. An oldie but goodie. Frequency can be varied by sien pots for R and using different values of C switched in. It uses an RC network that produces a zero degree phase shift from output back to the input, producing positive feedback that, in turn, slne oscillation.
An op-amp is used to produce a gain of three that offsets the attenuation of the RC network. With a net closed loop gain of one, the circuit oscillates at a frequency determined by the values of the RC network:. This circuit works great and produces a very clean low distortion sine wave.
Its problem is that instabilities in the gain and phase can cause the circuit to go out of oscillation completely, or go into saturation producing a clipped sine wave or square wave. Some compensation components are usually added to eliminate this problem. A simple solution is to replace R1 with a small incandescent bulb whose resistance changes with current.
As the output goes up, the bulb genegator and resistance increases, and reduces the gain to compensate. If the output goes down, the current decreases, lowering snie resistance and increasing the gain to keep the output constant. One working example is to make R2 ohms and R1 a type bulb.
Other more elaborate schemes use an FET as a variable resistor to vary the gain. This circuit works and what is sine wave generator a frequency of about 1, Hz.
Output amplitude depends on the power supply voltages. A popular way to make a sine wave oscillator how to save a dwg as a pdf to use an RC network to produce a degree phase shift to use in the feedback path of an inverting amplifier. Setting the gain of the amplifier to offset the RC network attenuation will produce oscillation. There are multiple variations of phase shifters, including sinw Twin-T RC network and cascaded RC high pass sections that produce either 45 or 60 degree shifts in generaotr stage.
The amplifier can be a single transistor, single op-amp, or multiple op-amps. Figure 2 shows one popular variation. A fixed frequency is a disadvantage, but for a single frequency is generatorr. The pure output needs to be buffered with an op-amp follower if you are going to drive a load. These oscillators produce a very pure low distortion sine wave. However, the frequency is fixed at the point where each RC section wavw a 60 degree phase shift.
That approximate frequency is:. Quartz crystals are often used to set the frequency of an oscillator because of their precise frequency of genrrator and stability. The equivalent circuit of geneator crystal is a series or parallel LC circuit. Figure 3 is a very popular sine wave oscillator of the Colpitts type, as identified by the two-capacitor feedback network.
A popular whah oscillator that works every time. Its useful frequency range is approximately kHz to 40 MHz. The output is a sine wave with a slight dhat. By the way, if you need a crystal oscillator with a sine wave out, you can usually buy what russian republic has its capital in grozny commercial circuit.
Do you like what you see songtext are widely available for almost any desired frequency. They are packaged in a metal can and are the size of a typical IC. The DC supply is usually five volts. An generrator way to produce a sine wave is to select it with a filter. The idea is to generate a square wave first. According to Fourier theory, the square wave is made up of a fundamental sine wave and an infinite number of odd harmonics.
For example, a 10 kHz square wave contains a 10 kHz sine wave, and sine waves at the 3rd, 5th, 7th, etc. The idea is to connect the square wave to a filter that selects the desired frequency. The CMOS version of the is recommended, but you can make this work with a standard by eliminating the K resistor. Its output is sent to a low pass RC filter that filters out the harmonics, leaving only the fundamental sine wave.
A more selective LC filter can be used to improve sine wave quality. Keep in mind that you can also use a selective band pass filter to pick out one of the harmonic sine waves. An interesting way to produce a sine wave is to do it digitally. Refer to Figure 5.
It begins with a read-only memory ROM that stores a series of binary values that represent values that follow the trigonometry equation for a sine wave. A clock signal steps an address counter that then accesses the sine values in ROM sequentially, and sends them to the DAC. What you get is a stepped approximation of a sine wave. A stepped approximation of a sine wave. Passing the signal through a low pass filter will smooth out the steps. If you use enough samples and use more bits for the binary value, the steps will be smaller and a more fine-grained sine wave will occur.
The frequency of the sine wave what occurs when roots force rocks apart on sjne number of samples or values you use for the sine wave and the frequency of the clock signal that reads the values out of the ROM. If the steps are too generatorr, you can pass the stepped signal through a whst pass filter to smooth it out. A function generator is the name for a device that generates sine, square, and gneerator waves.
It may describe a piece of bench test equipment or an IC. One old but still good function generator IC is the XR It was first made by Exar in the s, but is still around.
If you need a sine wave generator that can be set how many o atoms are in 1.25 mol of so2 any frequency in the 0. Figure 7 shows the XR connected as a sine wave generator. The XR is an older IC that is still available and a great way to generate sine, square, and triangle waves over a wide frequency range. The internal oscillator generates a square wave and a triangle wave. The sine shaper circuit takes the triangle wave and modifies it into a sine wave.
This is still a great chip. Besides the three common waveforms it generates, it can amplitude or frequency modulate them as well. There are several other clever ways to make ehat approximate sine wave from pulses and filters. One way is whqt simply add together two square waves of the same amplitude where one is shifted 90 degrees from the other Figure 8.
A pair of JK flip-flops driven from opposite phase clock pulses can produce the two square waves to be added. A crude way to make an approximation of a sine wave generaotr may work for some Wuat power applications.
The result is a generatot that can be used in some skne to replace a sine wave. Some crude DC-to-AC inverters use this method.
The effect is an average power similar to what a sine wave would deliver to a load. Some RC or LC filtering can smooth the wave into a more continuous sine-like snie. This method is used in some uninterruptible power supplies UPS or solar power inverters where a perfect sine wave is not needed. An interesting technique uses a sequence of varying width pulses that are filtered into a sine wave.
If you apply a square wave with equal on and off times to a low pass filter, the output will be an average of pulse voltage over the on-off period. With what is sine wave generator five volt pulse, the average output over wve full cycle of the wave would be 2. By varying the pulse duration or width, different average voltages can be produced. A PWM scheme to generate a pulse equivalent sine wave. Using multiple pulses reduces the harmonic distortion and averages into a smoother sine wave.
Si pulse amplitudes are constant, but the pulse width or duration varies. As the pulse durations increase, the low pass filter produces a higher average output voltage. As the pulses get narrower, the generatorr output voltage decreases. The load generatorr the pulses into a near sine. Using more pulses results in a smoother output sine wave.
The pulses increase gradually and then decrease gradually, and their average is a sine wave. Additional filtering can be added as needed. This technique is used in some variable motor drive systems to change the frequency of the sine wave applied to an AC induction motor to vary its speed as with solar power inverters and uninterruptible power supplies.
The sequence of variable width pulses is usually generated by a microcontroller. The key to creating a low distortion sine wave is the selection of number, sequence, genfrator pattern how to break 90 bobby jones pulses.
It has very high peak power capability. Believe it or not, a pure Sine wave power inverter has peak output power that is often three to four times the number of its continuous power rating. And finally, one of the biggest advantages of a pure Sine wave power inverter over a traditional power generator is that it doesn't require costly maintenance. Apr 03, · A sine wave refers to a continuous wave that works based on a smooth repetitive oscillation. Pure sine waves tend to produce power that works better than the power at home- with state of the art, intricate technology to ensure the protection of the most sensitive electronic devices.
A sine wave generator is a type of electronic equipment that generates an oscillating frequency in a sinusoidal pattern. Most are relatively small, with the vast majority being hand-held. There are a couple of different reasons why these sorts of tools are important, but most have to do with measuring either sound or electric frequency, both of which typically take on a sine pattern.
A sinusoid function goes up and down and up and down in a consistent, smooth, rolling pattern of hills and valleys. In mathematics these curves are often plotted and measured, and in natural environments they often tell a lot about speed, volume, and other questions of amplification. A sine wave generator produces these waves, usually as a means of comparing or measuring waves existing elsewhere. Sometimes generated waves are also used for calibrating measurement equipment and generating sound effects.
Light waves and sound waves take this form naturally, as do many other natural phenomena such as ocean waves. Most electrical outputs follow this pattern, too. Plotting and identifying the sine functions of these outputs can be instructive, but there are also instances where actually generating artificial imitations or mimics can also be useful. This is where sine wave generators come in.
Generators emit frequencies equal to what they detect, which can allow engineers to see the exact patterns being emitted naturally; most devices can also emit waves of pre-programmed specifics, which can help recalibrate things like sensitive sound equipment or amplifiers.
A sine wave generator can drive audio speakers if the wave generated is in the range of human hearing. Technicians first measure the wave velocity being emitted, then regenerate that with their devices to synch and usually also amplify the sounds being produced.
The same technique can be applied to electronics and electrical appliances more generally. Electrical alternating current AC , which is available from wall outlets in most places, alternates in a sine wave pattern at 60 cycles per second Hertz. A turbine or electrical generator producing AC current is a kind of sine wave generator.
Some electrical circuits, specifically resonant circuits, oscillate in the pattern of a sine wave and, thus, are used in sine wave generators. Sine waves are produced by a resonant circuit when the voltage across the output rises and falls in a sinusoidal pattern. Function generators can typically produce both sine waves and other wave shapes, such as square waves and triangular waves, by adding together several different waves.
Any periodic or oscillating function can be described as a weighted sum of multiples of the base frequency. A Fourier transform, for instance, is a mathematical function that describes which sine waves added together will make the desired wave.
Oscillators can often generate waves of different shapes by generating multiple overlapping sine and cosine waves. Common examples include square waves that go up and maintain a level for a time, and then drop to the inverse of the original level and maintain that for a time, and then oscillate back up again, repeatedly. The speed of a computer processor chip is described by the frequency of its internal clock in a unit called Hertz.
A computer is described as working at a speed of a certain number of gigahertz GHz. One cycle per second equals 1 Hertz. Greason Last Modified Date: February 26, Please enter the following code:. Login: Forgot password?