We have already mentioned the presence of certain proteins in the cell membrane. In this section we will discuss the different classes of proteins found there. While the lipid bilayer provides the structure for the cell membrane, membrane proteins allow for many of the interactions that occur between cells. The cell envelope is composed of the cell membrane and the cell lovemeen.com in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. In prokaryotes, the primary function of the cell wall is to protect the cell from internal turgor pressure caused by the much higher concentrations of proteins, and other molecules inside the cell compared to its external environment.
In addition to the lipid bilayer, the cell membrane also contains a number of proteins. We have already mentioned the presence of how to find celeb leaked photos proteins in the cell membrane. In this section we will discuss the different classes of proteins found there. While the lipid bilayer provides the structure for the cell membrane, membrane proteins allow celp many of the interactions that occur between cells.
As we discussed in the previous section, membrane proteins are free to move within the lipid bilayer as a result of its fluidity. Although this is true for most proteins, they can also be confined fuond certain areas of the bilayer with enzymes. Membrane proteins perform various functions, and this foujd is reflected in the significantly different types of proteins associated with the lipid bilayer. Proteins are generally broken down into the smaller classifications of integral proteins, peripheral proteins, and lipid-bound proteins.
Integral proteins are embedded within the lipid bilayer. They cannot easily be removed from the cell membrane without the use of harsh detergents that destroy the lipid bilayer. Integral proteins float rather freely within the bilayer, much like oceans in the sea. In addition, integral proteins are usually transmembrane proteins, extending through the lipid bilayer so that one end contacts the interior of the cell and the other touches the exterior.
The stretch of the integral protein within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer is also hydrophobic, made up of non-polar amino acids. Like the lipid bilayer, the exposed ends of the integral protein membraned hydrophilic. When a protein crosses the lipid bilayer it adopts an alpha-helical configuration. Transmembrane proteins can either cross the lipid bilayer one or multiple times.
The former are referred to as single-pass proteins and the later as multi-pass proteins. As a result of their structure, transmembrane proteins are the only class of proteins that can perform functions both inside and outside of the cell.
Peripheral proteins are attached to the exterior of the lipid bilayer. They are easily separable from the lipid bilayer, how to claim points in globe rewards to be removed without harming the bilayer in any way.
Peripheral proteins are less mobile within the lipid bilayer. The protein and lipid cell membrane is ceol with a layer of carbohydrate chains on its outer surface. This layer is called a cell coat or glycocalyx. The exact composition and distribution of these chains is very diverse. The chains are thought to provide the cell with protection against damage. Glycocalyx are only found on the surface of the cells of higher organism's. Summary Membrane Proteins. Classifications of Membrane Proteins Proteins are generally broken down into the smaller classifications of integral proteins, peripheral proteins, and lipid-bound proteins.
Integral Proteins Integral proteins are embedded within the lipid bilayer. Peripheral Proteins Peripheral proteins are attached to the exterior of the lipid bilayer. Lipid-Bound Proteins Lipid-bound proteins are located entirely within the boundaries of the lipid bilayer. The Cell Surface The protein and lipid cell membrane is covered with a layer of carbohydrate chains on its outer surface.
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The bacterium, despite its simplicity, contains a well-developed cell structure which is responsible for some of its unique biological structures and pathogenicity. Many structural features are unique to bacteria and are not found among archaea or eukaryotes. Because of the simplicity of bacteria relative to larger organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical principles that have been subsequently applied to other organisms.
Perhaps the most elemental structural property of bacteria is their morphology shape. Typical examples include:. Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions.
Some bacteria have complex life cycles involving the production of stalks and appendages e. Caulobacter and some produce elaborate structures bearing reproductive spores e. Myxococcus , Streptomyces. Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates. Perhaps the most obvious structural characteristic of bacteria is with some exceptions their small size.
About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. Therefore, a typical fully grown 1-liter culture of Escherichia coli at an optical density of 1. At low surface area-to-volume ratios the diffusion of nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane limits the rate at which microbial metabolism can occur, making the cell less evolutionarily fit.
The reason for the existence of large cells is unknown, although it is speculated that the increased cell volume is used primarily for storage of excess nutrients.
Comparison of a typical bacterial cell and a typical human cell assuming both cells are spheres :. The cell envelope is composed of the cell membrane and the cell wall. As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. In prokaryotes , the primary function of the cell wall is to protect the cell from internal turgor pressure caused by the much higher concentrations of proteins, and other molecules inside the cell compared to its external environment.
The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan which is located immediately outside of the cell membrane. Peptidoglycan is responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall, and for the determination of cell shape. It is relatively porous and is not considered to be a permeability barrier for small substrates. While all bacterial cell walls with a few exceptions such as extracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma contain peptidoglycan, not all cell walls have the same overall structures.
Since the cell wall is required for bacterial survival, but is absent in some eukaryotes , several antibiotics notably the penicillins and cephalosporins stop bacterial infections by interfering with cell wall synthesis, while having no effects on human cells which have no cell wall, only a cell membrane. There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria , which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics.
For both these types of bacteria, particles of approximately 2 nm can pass through the peptidoglycan. Beta-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. The enzyme lysozyme , found in human tears, also digests the cell wall of bacteria and is the body's main defense against eye infections. The gram-positive bacteria take up the crystal violet dye and are stained purple.
The cell wall of some gram-positive bacteria can be completely dissolved by lysozymes which attacks the bonds between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. In other gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus , the walls are resistant to the action of lysozymes.
The matrix substances in the walls of gram-positive bacteria may be polysaccharides or teichoic acids. The latter are very widespread, but have been found only in gram-positive bacteria. There are two main types of teichoic acid: ribitol teichoic acids and glycerol teichoic acids. The latter one is more widespread. These acids are polymers of ribitol phosphate and glycerol phosphate , respectively, and only located on the surface of many gram-positive bacteria. However, the exact function of teichoic acid is debated and not fully understood.
A major component of the gram-positive cell wall is lipoteichoic acid. One of its purposes is providing an antigenic function. The lipid element is to be found in the membrane where its adhesive properties assist in its anchoring to the membrane.
Gram-negative cell walls are much thinner than the gram-positive cell walls, and they contain a second plasma membrane superficial to their thin peptidoglycan layer, in turn adjacent to the cytoplasmic membrane. Gram-negative bacteria are stained as pink colour.
The chemical structure of the outer membrane's lipopolysaccharide is often unique to specific bacterial sub-species and is responsible for many of the antigenic properties of these strains.
The plasma membrane or bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer and thus has all of the general functions of a cell membrane such as acting as a permeability barrier for most molecules and serving as the location for the transport of molecules into the cell. In addition to these functions, prokaryotic membranes also function in energy conservation as the location about which a proton motive force is generated.
Unlike eukaryotes , bacterial membranes with some exceptions e. Mycoplasma and methanotrophs generally do not contain sterols.
However, many microbes do contain structurally related compounds called hopanoids which likely fulfill the same function. Unlike eukaryotes , bacteria can have a wide variety of fatty acids within their membranes. Along with typical saturated and unsaturated fatty acids , bacteria can contain fatty acids with additional methyl , hydroxy or even cyclic groups. The relative proportions of these fatty acids can be modulated by the bacterium to maintain the optimum fluidity of the membrane e.
Gram-negative and mycobacteria have an inner and outer bacteria membrane. As a phospholipid bilayer , the lipid portion of the bacterial outer membrane is impermeable to charged molecules. However, channels called porins are present in the outer membrane that allow for passive transport of many ions , sugars and amino acids across the outer membrane.
These molecules are therefore present in the periplasm , the region between the cytoplasmic and outer membranes. The periplasm contains the peptidoglycan layer and many proteins responsible for substrate binding or hydrolysis and reception of extracellular signals. The periplasm is thought to exist in a gel-like state rather than a liquid due to the high concentration of proteins and peptidoglycan found within it.
Because of its location between the cytoplasmic and outer membranes, signals received and substrates bound are available to be transported across the cytoplasmic membrane using transport and signaling proteins imbedded there. Fimbriae sometimes called " attachment pili " are protein tubes that extend out from the outer membrane in many members of the Proteobacteria. They are generally short in length and present in high numbers about the entire bacterial cell surface.
Fimbriae usually function to facilitate the attachment of a bacterium to a surface e. A few organisms e. Myxococcus use fimbriae for motility to facilitate the assembly of multicellular structures such as fruiting bodies. Pili are similar in structure to fimbriae but are much longer and present on the bacterial cell in low numbers. Pili are involved in the process of bacterial conjugation where they are called conjugation pili or " sex pili ".
Type IV pili non-sex pili also aid bacteria in gripping surfaces. An S-layer surface layer is a cell surface protein layer found in many different bacteria and in some archaea , where it serves as the cell wall. All S-layers are made up of a two-dimensional array of proteins and have a crystalline appearance, the symmetry of which differs between species. The exact function of S-layers is unknown, but it has been suggested that they act as a partial permeability barrier for large substrates.
For example, an S-layer could conceivably keep extracellular proteins near the cell membrane by preventing their diffusion away from the cell. In some pathogenic species, an S-layer may help to facilitate survival within the host by conferring protection against host defence mechanisms.
Many bacteria secrete extracellular polymers outside of their cell walls called glycocalyx. These polymers are usually composed of polysaccharides and sometimes protein. Capsules are relatively impermeable structures that cannot be stained with dyes such as India ink. They are structures that help protect bacteria from phagocytosis and desiccation. Slime layer is involved in attachment of bacteria to other cells or inanimate surfaces to form biofilms.
Slime layers can also be used as a food reserve for the cell. Perhaps the most recognizable extracellular bacterial cell structures are flagella. Flagella are whip-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell wall and are responsible for bacterial motility i. The arrangement of flagella about the bacterial cell is unique to the species observed. Common forms include:. The bacterial flagellum consists of three basic components: a whip-like filament, a motor complex, and a hook that connects them.
The filament is approximately 20 nm in diameter and consists of several protofilaments, each made up of thousands of flagellin subunits. The bundle is held together by a cap and may or may not be encapsulated. The motor complex consists of a series of rings anchoring the flagellum in the inner and outer membranes, followed by a proton-driven motor that drives rotational movement in the filament.
In comparison to eukaryotes , the intracellular features of the bacterial cell are extremely simple. Bacteria do not contain organelles in the same sense as eukaryotes. Instead, the chromosome and perhaps ribosomes are the only easily observable intracellular structures found in all bacteria.
There do exist, however, specialized groups of bacteria that contain more complex intracellular structures, some of which are discussed below. Unlike eukaryotes , the bacterial DNA is not enclosed inside of a membrane-bound nucleus but instead resides inside the bacterial cytoplasm.
This means that the transfer of cellular information through the processes of translation , transcription and DNA replication all occur within the same compartment and can interact with other cytoplasmic structures, most notably ribosomes. Bacterial DNA can be located in two places:. The bacterial DNA is not packaged using histones to form chromatin as in eukaryotes but instead exists as a highly compact supercoiled structure, the precise nature of which remains unclear.
Borrelia burgdorferi. Usually a single bacterial chromosome is present, although some species with multiple chromosomes have been described. Along with chromosomal DNA, most bacteria also contain small independent pieces of DNA called plasmids that often encode for traits that are advantageous but not essential to their bacterial host.
Plasmids can be easily gained or lost by a bacterium and can be transferred between bacteria as a form of horizontal gene transfer. So plasmids can be described as an extra chromosomal DNA in a bacterial cell. In most bacteria the most numerous intracellular structure is the ribosome , the site of protein synthesis in all living organisms.