An expanded noun phrase adds more detail to the noun by adding one or more adjectives. An adjective is a word that describes a noun. Complete the activity below by clicking on the words that make. A gerund (/ ? d? ? r ?n d,-? n d / abbreviated GER) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages; most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a lovemeen.com English, it has the properties of both verb and noun, such as being modifiable by an adverb and being able to take a direct object. The term "-ing form" is often used in English to refer to the gerund specifically.
When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. Extendec material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This handout provides a detailed overview including descriptions and extehded of gerunds, participles, and infinitives.
A participle is a verbal that is used as an adjective and most often ends in -ing or -ed. The term verbal indicates that a participle, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since they function as adjectives, participles modify nouns or pronouns. There are two types of participles: present participles and past participles.
Present participles end in -ing. Past participles end in -ed-en-d-t-nor -ne as in the words askedeatensaveddealtseenand gone. The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Jack. Removing participle his coat direct object of action expressed in participle. The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying cousin. The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying children.
The participial phrase functions as an adjective modifying Lynn. Having been participle a gymnast subject complement for Lynn, via state of being expressed in participle. Placement: In order to prevent confusion, a participial phrase must be placed as close to the noun it modifies as possible, and the noun must be clearly stated.
In the first sentence, there is no clear indication of who or what is performing the action expressed in the participle carrying. Phrasr, foot can't be logically understood to function in this way. This situation is an example of a dangling modifier error, since the modifier the participial phrase is not modifying any specific noun in the sentence how to terminate cat5e patch panel is thus left "dangling.
Punctuation: When a participial phrase begins a iz, a comma should be placed after the phrase. If the participle or participial phrase comes in the middle of a sentence, it should be set off with commas only if the information is not essential to the meaning of the sentence. Note that if the participial phrase is essential to the meaning of the sentence, no commas should be used:. If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase zn it modifies an earlier word in the sentence but how to become a furry if the phrase directly follows the word it modifies.
Participles Summary: This handout provides a detailed overview including descriptions and examples of gerunds, participles, and infinitives. Removing his coatJack rushed to the river. Delores noticed her cousin walking along the shoreline. Children interested in music early develop strong intellectual skills. Having been a gymnastLynn knew the importance of exercise.
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In general, Michif noun phrase phonology, lexicon, morphology and syntax are derived from Metis French, while verb phrase phonology, lexicon, morphology and syntax are from a southern variety of Plains Cree. (Plains Cree is a western dialect of Cree.) Articles and adjectives are also of Metis French origin but demonstratives are from Plains Cree. To understand noun phrases and use extended noun phrases for description. An expanded noun phrase adds more detail to the noun by adding one or more adjectives. An adjective is a word that. Term Definition; active voice: one of two voices in English; a direct form of expression where the subject performs or "acts" the verb; see also passive voice e.g: "Many people eat rice": adjective: part of speech that typically describes or "modifies" a noun e.g: "It was a big dog.": adjective clause: seldom-used term for relative clause: adjunct: word or phrase that adds information to a.
In English, it has the properties of both verb and noun, such as being modifiable by an adverb and being able to take a direct object. The term " -ing form" is often used in English to refer to the gerund specifically. Traditional grammar makes a distinction within -ing forms between present participles and gerunds, a distinction that is not observed in such modern grammars as A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language and The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. The Latin gerund, in a restricted set of syntactic contexts, denotes the sense of the verb in isolation after certain prepositions, and in certain uses of the genitive , dative , and ablative cases.
It is very rarely combined with dependent sentence elements such as object. To express such concepts, the construction with the adjectival gerundive is preferred. By contrast, the term gerund has been used in the grammatical description of other languages to label verbal nouns used in a wide range of syntactic contexts and with a full range of clause elements. Thus, English grammar uses gerund to mean an -ing form used in non-finite clauses such as playing on computers.
This is not a normal use for a Latin gerund. Moreover, the clause may function within a sentence as subject or object , which is impossible for a Latin gerund.
Latin never uses the gerund in this way, since the infinitive is available. Traditional English grammar distinguishes non-finite clauses used as above from adverbial use, adjective-like modification of nouns, and use in finite progressive continuous forms.
In these uses playing is traditionally labelled a participle. Traditional grammar also distinguishes -ing forms with exclusively noun properties as in. The objection to the term gerund in English grammar is that -ing forms are frequently used in ways that do not conform to the clear-cut three-way distinction made by traditional grammar into gerunds, participles and nouns [ how?
Related gerundive forms are composed in a similar way with adjectival inflexional endings. The four inflections are used for a limited range of grammatical functions . Gerunds are distinct in two ways. When people first wrote grammars of languages such as English, and based them on works of Latin grammar, they adopted the term gerund to label non-finite verb forms with these two properties.
In other languages, it may refer to almost any non-finite verb form; however, it most often refers to an action noun, by analogy with its use as applied to Latin. In traditional grammars of English, the term gerund labels an important use of the form of the verb ending in -ing for details of its formation and spelling, see English verbs. Other important uses are termed participle used adjectivally or adverbially , and as a pure verbal noun.
An -ing form is termed gerund when it behaves as a verb within a clause so that it may be modified by an adverb or have an object ; but the resulting clause as a whole sometimes consisting of only one word, the gerund itself functions as a noun within the larger sentence. For example, consider the sentence "Eating this cake is easy. The entire clause eating this cake is then used as a noun, which in this case serves as the subject of the larger sentence. An item such as eating this cake in the foregoing example is an example of a non-finite verb phrase ; however, because phrases of this type do not require a subject, it is also a complete clause.
Traditionally, such an item would be referred to as a phrase , but in modern linguistics it has become common to call it a clause. A gerund clause such as this is one of the types of non-finite clause.
The structure may be represented as follows:. Non-finite verb forms ending in -ing, whether termed gerund or participle may be marked like finite forms as Continuous or Non-continuous, Perfect or Non-perfect, Active or Passive. Thus, traditional grammars have represented the gerund as having four forms — two for the active voice and two for the passive: .
The following sentences illustrate some uses of gerund clauses, showing how such a clause serves as a noun within the larger sentence. In some cases, the clause consists of just the gerund although in many such cases the word could equally be analyzed as a pure verbal noun. Using gerunds of the appropriate auxiliary verbs , one can form gerund clauses that express perfect aspect and passive voice :.
In traditional grammars, gerunds are distinguished from other uses of a verb's -ing form: the present participle which is a non-finite verb form like the gerund, but is adjectival or adverbial in function , and the pure verbal noun or deverbal noun.
The distinction between gerund and present participles is not recognised in modern reference grammars, since many uses are ambiguous. Non finite -ing clauses may have the following roles in a sentence: . In traditional grammars, a grammatical subject has been defined in such a way that it occurs only in finite clauses, where it is liable to "agree" with the "number" of the finite verb form. Nevertheless, non-finite clauses imply a "doer" of the verb, even if that doer is indefinite "someone or something".
For example,. However, the "doer" may not be indefinite or already expressed in the sentence. Rather it must be overtly specified, typically in a position immediately before the non-finite verb. The "doer" expression is not the grammatical subject of a finite clause, so objective them is used rather than subjective they.
Traditional grammarians may object to the term subject for these "doers". And prescriptive grammarians go further, objecting to the use of forms more appropriate to the subjects or objects of finite clauses. The argument is that this results in two noun expressions with no grammatical connection. They prefer to express the "doer" by a possessive form, such as used with ordinary nouns:. Nonetheless, the possessive construction with -ing clauses is very rare in present-day English.
Works of fiction show a moderate frequency, but the construction is highly infrequent in other types of text. The sense of the cat as notional subject of licking is disregarded. Rather they see the cat as exclusively the object of I saw The modifying phrase licking the cream is therefore described as a participle use. Henry Fowler claims that the use of a non-possessive noun to precede a gerund arose as a result of confusion with the above usage with a participle, and should thus be called fused participle  or geriple.
It has been argued that if the prescriptive rule is followed, the difference between the two forms may be used to make a slight distinction in meaning:. However, Quirk et al. These sentence exemplify a spectrum of senses from more noun-like to more verb--like. At the extremes of the spectrum they place. In some cases, particularly with a non-personal subject, the use of the possessive before a gerund may be considered redundant even in quite a formal register.
For example, "There is no chance of the snow falling" rather than the prescriptively correct "There is no chance of the snow's falling". The term gerund describes certain uses of -ing clauses as 'complementation' of individual English verbs, that is to say the choice of class that are allowable after that word.
Historically, the -ing suffix was attached to a limited number of verbs to form abstract nouns, which were used as the object of verbs such as like.
The use was extended in various ways: the suffix became attachable to all verbs; the nouns acquired verb-like characteristics; the range of verbs allowed to introduce the form spread by analogy first to other verbs expressing emotion, then by analogy to other semantic groups of verbs associated with abstract noun objects; finally the use spread from verbs taking one-word objects to other semantically related groups verbs. The present-day result of these developments is that the verbs followed by -ing forms tend to fall into semantic classes.
In the following groups, the senses are inseparable, jointly expressing a single complex action or state. Some grammarians do not recognise all these patterns as gerund use. In contrast to Pattern 4b, these verbs allow the 'subject' of the -ing clauses to be used in an equivalent passive construction such as She was kept coming.
These verbs refer to starting, spending or ending time. The following -ing form is an adverbial, traditionally classed as a participle rather than a gerund.
These verbs also relate to time and, by extension, money. The object generally expresses this concept. However, the object of busy or occupy must be a reflexive pronoun e. She busied herself coming. The following -ing form is an adverbial, generally classed as a participle rather than a gerund.
Like the -ing suffix, the to-infinitive spread historically from a narrow original use, a prepositional phrase referring to future time. Like the -ing form it spread to all English verbs and to form non-finite clauses. Like the -ing form, it spread by analogy to use with words of similar meaning. English verb forms ending in -ing are sometimes borrowed into other languages. In some cases, they become pseudo-anglicisms , taking on new meanings or uses not found in English. For instance, camping means "campsite" in many languages, while parking often means a car park.
Both these words are treated as nouns, with none of the features of the gerund in English. For more details and examples, see -ing words in other languages. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Verb form. Not to be confused with the Gerundive. This section does not cite any sources.
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Faber and Faber. A Comparative Germanic Grammar. Linguistic Society of America for Yale University. Cambridge University Press. WordNet 1. Retrieved A noun formed from a verb such as the '-ing' form of an English verb when used as a noun.
ISBN Harper Collins. A Historical Syntax of English. Edinburgh University Press. Lexical categories and their features.