Vocabulary from Geography: Polder
Polder definition, a tract of low land, especially in the Netherlands, reclaimed from the sea or other body of water and protected by dikes. See more. lovemeen.com Polder, tract of lowland reclaimed from a body of water, often the sea, by the construction of dikes roughly parallel to the shoreline, followed by drainage of the area between the dikes and the natural coastline. Where the land surface is above low-tide level, the water may be drained off through tide gates, which discharge water into the sea at low tide and automatically close to prevent re-entry .
Empoldering is a method of reclaiming land from the sea, and a way to control flood pklder. Empoldering involves the use of a polder, a piece of land in a low-lying area that has been reclaimed from a body of water by building dikes and drainage canals.
Although empoldering is usually carried out in low-lying coastal areas, it can also be dome in inland areas such as lakes and rivers.
It is common in countries like the Netherlandswhere much of the country is below sea level and subject to flooding. About one-fifth of the land in the Netherlands has been how do you calculate inventory turnover ratio from the sea.
Their os and most successful project is the Zuider Zee project. Polders have two distinct features. Firstly, they are enclosed by dikes to keep the water out.
The dikes also serve to protect the polder from erosion. Secondly, polders are continually maintained by systems of drainage canals and pumps which prevent them from becoming waterlogged and hence, suitable for cultivation. Stage 3: " Reed s" a type of salt tolerant plant are sown by aircraft to help the soil form.
Stage 5: After a period of up to 15 years, the polder is ready for growing crops, building houses and constructing roads. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Polders and Dikes of the Netherlands
polder. (?p??ld?; ?p?l-) n. (Physical Geography) a stretch of land reclaimed from the sea or a lake, esp in the Netherlands. [C from Middle Dutch polre] Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition © HarperCollins Publishers , , , , , , , , , Nov 01, · Definition of polder.: a tract of low land (as in the Netherlands) reclaimed from a body of water (such as the sea). Polder. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Polder at Ne?mersiel, Germany, aerial view () The Zuiderzee in the Netherlands is a Polder. Old land is mostly green, new land is darker in color. Empoldering is a method of reclaiming land from the sea, and a way to control flood lovemeen.comted Reading Time: 1 min.
The three types of polder are:. The ground level in drained marshes subsides over time. All polders will eventually be below the surrounding water level some or all of the time.
Water enters the low-lying polder through infiltration and water pressure of groundwater , or rainfall, or transport of water by rivers and canals. This usually means that the polder has an excess of water, which is pumped out or drained by opening sluices at low tide. Care must be taken not to set the internal water level too low.
Polder land made up of peat former marshland will sink in relation to its previous level, because of peat decomposing when exposed to oxygen from the air. Polders are at risk from flooding at all times, and care must be taken to protect the surrounding dikes. Dikes are typically built with locally available materials, and each material has its own risks: sand is prone to collapse owing to saturation by water; dry peat is lighter than water and potentially unable to retain water in very dry seasons.
Some animals dig tunnels in the barrier, allowing water to infiltrate the structure; the muskrat is known for this activity and hunted in certain European countries because of it. Polders are most commonly, though not exclusively, found in river deltas, former fenlands , and coastal areas.
Flooding of polders has also been used as a military tactic in the past. Opening the sluices at high tide and closing them at low tide turned the polders into an inaccessible swamp, which allowed the Allied armies to stop the German army. The Dutch word polder derives successively from Middle Dutch polre , from Old Dutch polra , and ultimately from pol- , a piece of land elevated above its surroundings, with the augmentative suffix -er and epenthetical -d-.
The word has been adopted in thirty-six languages. The Netherlands is frequently associated with polders, as its engineers became noted for developing techniques to drain wetlands and make them usable for agriculture and other development. This is illustrated by the saying "God created the world, but the Dutch created the Netherlands". The Dutch have a long history of reclamation of marshes and fenland, resulting in some 3, polders  nationwide.
By , about half of the country's land, 18, square kilometres 6, sq mi , was reclaimed from the sea. The first embankments in Europe were constructed in Roman times. The first polders were constructed in the 11th century.
The oldest extant polder is the Achtermeer polder, from As a result of flooding disasters, water boards called waterschap when situated more inland or hoogheemraadschap near the sea, mainly used in the Holland region   were set up to maintain the integrity of the water defences around polders, maintain the waterways inside a polder, and control the various water levels inside and outside the polder.
Water boards hold separate elections, levy taxes, and function independently from other government bodies. Their function is basically unchanged even today. As such, they are the oldest democratic institutions in the country. The necessary cooperation among all ranks to maintain polder integrity gave its name to the Dutch version of third-way politics —the Polder Model. The flood disaster prompted a new approach to the design of dikes and other water-retaining structures, based on an acceptable probability of overflowing.
Risk is defined as the product of probability and consequences. The potential damage in lives, property, and rebuilding costs is compared with the potential cost of water defences. From these calculations follows an acceptable flood risk from the sea at one in 4,—10, years, while it is one in —2, years for a river flood. The particular established policy guides the Dutch government to improve flood defences as new data on threat levels become available.
Major Dutch polders and the years they were laid dry include Beemster — , Schermer — , and Haarlemmermeerpolder Polders created as part of the Zuiderzee Works include Wieringermeerpolder , Noordoostpolder and Flevopolder — Bangladesh has polders, of which 49 are sea-facing, while the rest are along the numerous distributaries of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna River delta.
These were constructed in the s to protect the coast from tidal flooding and reduce salinity incursion. They are also cultivated for agriculture. The Jiangnan region, at the Yangtze River Delta , has a long history of constructing polders. Most of these projects were performed between the 10th and 13th centuries. In Germany, land reclaimed by dyking is called a koog. In southern Germany, the term polder is used for retention basins recreated by opening dikes during river floodplain restoration , a meaning somewhat opposite to that in coastal context.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Polder disambiguation. Reclaimed land. Main article: Koog. Nederlandse woorden wereldwijd, pp. Sdu Uitgevers bv, Den Haag. The sentence stems from a poem by Archibald Pitcairn — : Tellurem fecere dei, sua littora Belgae.
Retrieved For Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. Archived from the original on Sea of Land, The polder as an experimental atlas of Dutch landscape architecture. Beijing: Nongye Chubanshe. Journal of Sun Yat-sen University. Tokyo: Tokyo University Press. The Hindu. The Hindu Group. Indian Academy of Sciences. Inch and Foyle Wildfowl Project. Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 5 June Categories : Polders Artificial landforms Land reclamation Environmental soil science Riparian zone Coastal construction Freshwater ecology.
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