What Causes Liver Cancer?
Long-term (chronic) hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections are linked to liver cancer because they often lead to cirrhosis if they are undiagnosed and/or untreated. Hepatitis B is an exception to the norm in that it can lead to liver cancer without first causing cirrhosis in the progression of liver damage. Therefore, if a man experiences such signs, he should get himself examined for liver cancer. Bloody Urine. This is an indication of problems in liver, testicular, and/or prostate cancer. The liver gets filled with blood when its cells become cancerous. This causes the blood to flow out of the urinary system, and is observed in urine.
Although several risk factors for liver cancer are known see Liver Cancer Risk Factorsexactly how these may lead normal liver cells to become cancerous is only partially understood. Some of these risk factors affect the DNA of cells in the liver, which can result in abnormal cell growth and may cause cancers to form. DNA is the chemical in our cells livet carries our genes which control how our cells function. We look like our parents because they are the source of our DNA. But How to say deja in spanish affects more than just how we look.
Some genes control when cells grow, divide into new cells, and die. Cancers can be caused by DNA changes mutations that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes. Several different genes usually need to have changes for a cell to become cancerous. Certain chemicals that cause liver cancer, such as aflatoxins, are known to damage the DNA in liver cells.
For how to become a slenderman proxy, studies have shown that aflatoxins can damage the TP53 tumor suppressor gene, which normally works to prevent cells from growing too much. Damage to the TP53 gene can lead to increased growth of abnormal cells and formation of cancers.
Hepatitis meb can also change DNA when they infect liver cells. In some patients, the virus's DNA can insert itself into a liver cell's DNA, where it may turn on the cell's oncogenes. Liver cancer clearly has many different causes, and there are undoubtedly many different genes involved in its development. It is hoped that a more complete understanding of how liver cancers develop will help doctors find cance to better prevent and treat them.
Genes that help cells to grow and divide and stay alive are called oncogenes. Genes that keep cell division under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.
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These hormones may cause: High blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia), which can cause nausea, confusion, constipation, weakness, or muscle problems. Low blood sugar levels (hypoglycemia), which can cause fatigue or fainting. Breast enlargement (gynecomastia) and/or shrinkage of . Autoimmune hepatitis (liver inflammation caused by an autoimmune disorder) Celiac disease (small intestine damage caused by gluten) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection; Epstein-Barr virus; Hemochromatosis (too much iron stored in your body) Liver cancer; Mononucleosis; Polymyositis (inflammatory disease that causes muscle weakness).
Liver problems that can occur include fatty liver disease and cirrhosis. The liver and its cells — as seen through a microscope — change dramatically when a normal liver becomes fatty or cirrhotic. The liver is an organ about the size of a football. It sits just under your rib cage on the right side of your abdomen. The liver is essential for digesting food and ridding your body of toxic substances.
Liver disease can be inherited genetic. Liver problems can also be caused by a variety of factors that damage the liver, such as viruses, alcohol use and obesity.
Over time, conditions that damage the liver can lead to scarring cirrhosis , which can lead to liver failure, a life-threatening condition. But early treatment may give the liver time to heal. The liver is your largest internal organ. About the size of a football, it's located mainly in the upper right portion of your abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above your stomach.
Liver disease doesn't always cause noticeable signs and symptoms. If signs and symptoms of liver disease do occur, the may include:. Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you. Seek immediate medical attention if you have abdominal pain that is so severe that you can't stay still. Parasites and viruses can infect the liver, causing inflammation that reduces liver function. The viruses that cause liver damage can be spread through blood or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is infected.
The most common types of liver infection are hepatitis viruses, including:. Diseases in which your immune system attacks certain parts of your body autoimmune can affect your liver. Examples of autoimmune liver diseases include:. An abnormal gene inherited from one or both of your parents can cause various substances to build up in your liver, resulting in liver damage.
Genetic liver diseases include:. Complications of liver disease vary, depending on the cause of your liver problems. Untreated liver disease may progress to liver failure, a life-threatening condition.
Liver disease care at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version.
This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Liver problems Open pop-up dialog box Close. Liver problems Liver problems that can occur include fatty liver disease and cirrhosis. The liver Open pop-up dialog box Close. The liver The liver is your largest internal organ. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Jameson JL, et al. Approach to the patient with liver disease.
In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. The McGraw-Hill Companies; Accessed Dec. The progression of liver disease.
American Liver Foundation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease adult. Mayo Clinic. Goldman L, et al. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. Elsevier; Feldman M, et al. Hepatic drug metabolism and liver disease caused by drugs. Saunders Elsevier; Alcoholic liver disease adult. Alcohol and public health: Frequently asked questions. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis A.
Liver disease caused by anesthetics, chemicals, toxins, and herbal preparations. Mundi MS, et al. Nutrition in Clinical Practice. Ferri FF. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor Five things you should know about dietary supplements for hepatitis C. National Center for Complementary Integrative Health.
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