16.2: Structure and Function of the Respiratory System
The respiratory system is the network of organs and tissues that help you breathe. It includes your airways, lungs, and blood vessels. The muscles that power your lungs are also part of the respiratory system. These parts work together to move oxygen throughout the body and clean out waste gases like carbon dioxide. The respiratory system is the organs and other parts of your body involved in breathing, when you exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. Parts of the Respiratory System Your respiratory system.
The respiratory system plays a vital role in the body, by providing your cells with much needed oxygen, as well as excreting carbon dioxide, which can be deadly if allowed to accumulate.
Major parts what helps you poop when you re constipated the system include the airways, the lungs, and the muscles of respiration. This article will explain anatomy of the respiratory system, detailing the organs involved as well as the things that can go wrong.
The three major parts of what are the parking lot bumpers called respiratory system all work together to carry out their task. The airways nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx etc. The lungs work to pass oxygen into the body, whilst removing carbon dioxide from the body. The muscles of respiration, such as the diaphragm, work in unison to pump air into and out of the lungs whilst breathing.
The nose is the primary opening for the respiratory system, made of bone, muscle, and cartilage. The nasal cavity is a cavity within your nose filled with mucus membranes and hairs. The nose is used to inhale air into the body. The nasal cavity warms the air as it enters, acting as filtration and purifying the air by removing any dust, pollen, and other contaminants, before it passed to the inner body.
Also called the oral how to protect plants in the winter, the mouth is the secondary exterior opening for the respiratory system. Most commonly, the majority of respiration is achieved via the nose and nasal cavity, but the mouth can be used if needed.
Inhaling air through the mouth allows more inhalation, as the oral cavity is far larger than the pqrts cavity. The air also has less distance to travel, meaning more air can enter your body and reespiratory used faster. The oral cavity has no hairs or filtering techniques, meaning the air you inhale does not undergo the filtration process.
Also called the throat, the pharynx is a funnel of muscle that extends from the respiratory openings to the esophagus and larynx. Air that is inhaled enters the pharynx, where it descends into the larynx via a diversion from the epiglottis.
As the pharynx is used for swallowing food as well as breathing, the epiglottis ensures that air can pass into the trachea, and that food enters the esophagus.
Also known as the voice box, the larynx is situated below the pharynx, in the anterior portion of the neck. Aside from allowing us the ability of speech, the larynx also acts as a defense mechanism. If any food passes into the esophagus when swallowing, the larynx produces a strong cough reflex.
Also known as the wind pipe, the trachea is a tube made of cartilage rings that are lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. The main respiratory function of the trachea is to provide a clear and unhindered airway for air to enter and exit the lungs. Inside the trachea, small hairs reside upon the inner walls. These hairs catch dust and other contaminants from inhaled air, teh are later expelled via coughing.
The bronchi are two tubes stemming off of the end of the trachea. Each tube is connected to a lung. The bronchi connect the wind pipe to the lungs, allowing air from external respiratory openings to pass efficiently into the lungs.
Once in the lungs, the bronchi begin to branch out into secondary, smaller bronchi, coined tertiary bronchi. Alveoli have extremely thin walls, which allows the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to take place within the lungs. There are estimated to be three million alveoli in the how to make a guy come fast lung. The diaphragm contracts to expand the space inside the thoracic cavity, whilst moving a few inches inferiorly into the abdominal cavity.
Whilst this is happening, the intercostal muscles also contract, which moves the kf cage up and out. The contractions force air into the lungs, by creating a negative pressure through expansion. Once air has been inhaled, it passed through the airways until it partts the alveoli within the lungs. Alveolus are surrounded by capillaries, through which the gasses enter and exit.
Carbon dioxide enters the alveolus, where oxygen is extracted and passed back into the body. The constant blood funtion prevents saturation yhe the blood, allowing for optimal transfer. The following picture better illustrates the process:. You should also know that many conditions and illnesses can affect the respiratory system, some of the common problems include:. Copyright WWW. Last Updated 23 April, Respiratory System Organs and Their Functions.
Anatomy of Respiratory System: Organs and Functions The three major parts of the respiratory system all work together to carry out their task. Rsepiratory Organs Description Function Nose and Nasal Cavity The nose is the primary opening for the respiratory system, ot of bone, muscle, and cartilage. Mouth Also called the oral cavity, the mouth is the secondary exterior opening for the respiratory system. Pharynx Also called the throat, the pharynx is a funnel of muscle that extends from the respiratory openings to the esophagus and larynx.
Larynx Also known as the voice box, the larynx is situated below the pharynx, in the anterior portion of the neck. Trachea Also known as the wind pipe, the trachea is a tube made of cartilage rings that are lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium. Bronchi The bronchi are two tubes stemming off of the end of the trachea. Bronchioles Finction bronchi divide to even smaller, narrower tubes known as bronchioles.
Bronchioles lead to alveolar sacs, which are sacs containing alveoli. Alveoli Alveoli are hollow, individual cavities that are found within alveolar sacs. Diaphragm The diaphragm is an important muscle of respiration which is situated beneath the lungs. The following picture better illustrates the process: Diseases and Illnesses of the Respiratory System You should also know that many conditions and illnesses can affect the respiratory system, some of the common problems include: - Asthma — Asthma leads to a narrowing of the airways, which can cause breathlessness and wheezing.
Bronchitis — A condition that causes inflammation of the mucus lining within the one oarts or both. Emphysema — A disease that affects alveoli.
Pneumonia — When one or both lungs become inflamed. Lung cancer — Although commonly associated with smokers, lung cancer can also affect those who do not smoke. Now you know all about anatomy of respiratory system and things that can go wrong. Tertiary bronchi divide to even smaller, narrower tubes known as bronchioles. Alveoli are hollow, individual cavities that are found within alveolar sacs.
The diaphragm is an important muscle of respiration which is situated beneath the lungs.
What is Respiration?
Dec 21, · The organs of the respiratory system form a continuous system of passages called the respiratory tract. It has two major divisions: the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract. The upper respiratory tract includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Jul 29, · The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system, as they perform a vital role in breathing: gas exchange. The air that a person breathes in . Mar 23, · The respiratory system is responsible for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the human body. This system also helps remove metabolic waste products and keep pH levels in check. The major.
The air you exhale through your nose and mouth is warm, like the inside of your body. Exhaled air also contains a lot of water vapor because it passes over moist surfaces from the lungs to the nose or mouth. The water vapor in your breath cools suddenly when it reaches the much colder outside air. This causes the water vapor to condense into a fog of tiny droplets of liquid water. You release water vapor and other gases from your body through the process of respiration.
Respiration is the life-sustaining process in which gases are exchanged between the body and the outside atmosphere. Specifically, oxygen moves from the outside air into the body; and water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other waste gases move from inside the body into the outside air.
Respiration is carried out mainly by the respiratory system. It is important to note that respiration by the respiratory system is not the same process as cellular respiration that occurs inside cells, although the two processes are closely connected. When cellular respiration is aerobic, it uses oxygen and releases carbon dioxide as a waste product.
Respiration by the respiratory system supplies the oxygen needed by cells for aerobic cellular respiration and removes the carbon dioxide produced by cells during cellular respiration. Respiration by the respiratory system actually involves two subsidiary processes. One process is ventilation or breathing. This is the physical process of conducting air to and from the lungs. The other process is gas exchange.
This is the biochemical process in which oxygen diffuses out of the air and into the blood while carbon dioxide and other waste gases diffuse out of the blood and into the air.
All of the organs of the respiratory system are involved in breathing, but only the lungs are involved in gas exchange. The organs of the respiratory system form a continuous system of passages called the respiratory tract, through which air flows into and out of the body. The respiratory tract has two major divisions: the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract.
In addition to these organs, certain muscles of the thorax the body cavity that fills the chest are also involved in respiration by enabling breathing. Most important is a large muscle called the diaphragm, which lies below the lungs and separates the thorax from the abdomen.
Smaller muscles between the ribs also play a role in breathing. You can learn more about breathing muscles in the concept of Breathing. All of the organs and other structures of the upper respiratory tract are involved in conduction or the movement of air into and out of the body. Upper respiratory tract organs provide a route for air to move between the outside atmosphere and the lungs.
They also clean, humidity, and warm the incoming air. However, no gas exchange occurs in these organs. The nasal cavity is a large, air-filled space in the skull above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. It is a continuation of the two nostrils. As inhaled air flows through the nasal cavity, it is warmed and humidified.
Hairs in the nose help trap larger foreign particles in the air before they go deeper into the respiratory tract. In addition to its respiratory functions, the nasal cavity also contains chemoreceptors that are needed for the sense of smell and that contribute importantly to the sense of taste. The pharynx is a tube-like structure that connects the nasal cavity and the back of the mouth to other structures lower in the throat, including the larynx. The pharynx has dual functions: both air and food or other swallowed substances pass through it, so it is part of both the respiratory and the digestive systems.
Air passes from the nasal cavity through the pharynx to the larynx as well as in the opposite direction. Food passes from the mouth through the pharynx to the esophagus. The larynx connects the pharynx and trachea and helps to conduct air through the respiratory tract.
The larynx is also called the voice box because it contains the vocal cords, which vibrate when air flows over them, thereby producing sound. Certain muscles in the larynx move the vocal cords apart to allow breathing. Other muscles in the larynx move the vocal cords together to allow the production of vocal sounds.
The latter muscles also control the pitch of sounds and help control their volume. A very important function of the larynx is protecting the trachea from aspirated food. When swallowing occurs, the backward motion of the tongue forces a flap called the epiglottis to close over the entrance to the larynx.
This prevents swallowed material from entering the larynx and moving deeper into the respiratory tract. If swallowed material does start to enter the larynx, it irritates the larynx and stimulates a strong cough reflex. This generally expels the material out of the larynx and into the throat.
The trachea and other passages of the lower respiratory tract conduct air between the upper respiratory tract and the lungs. All told, there are an astonishing 1, miles of airways conducting air through the human respiratory tract! It is only in the lungs, however, that gas exchange occurs between the air and the bloodstream. The trachea, or windpipe, is the widest passageway in the respiratory tract.
It is about 2. It is formed by rings of cartilage, which make it relatively strong and resilient. The trachea connects the larynx to the lungs for the passage of air through the respiratory tract. The trachea branches at the bottom to form two bronchial tubes. There are two main bronchial tubes, or bronchi singular, bronchus , called the right and left bronchi. The bronchi carry air between the trachea and lungs. Each bronchus branches into smaller, secondary bronchi; and secondary bronchi branch into still smaller tertiary bronchi.
The smallest bronchi branch into very small tubules called bronchioles. The tiniest bronchioles end in alveolar ducts, which terminate in clusters of minuscule air sacs, called alveoli singular, alveolus , in the lungs. The lungs are the largest organs of the respiratory tract. They are suspended within the pleural cavity of the thorax.
The lungs are surrounded by two thin membranes called pleura, which secrete a fluid that allows the lungs to move freely within the pleural cavity. This is necessary so the lungs can expand and contract during breathing. These are called lobes, and they are separated from each other by connective tissues. The right lung is larger and contains three lobes. The left lung is smaller and contains only two lobes. The smaller left lung allows room for the heart, which is just left of the center of the chest.
These tiny air sacs are the functional units of the lungs where gas exchange takes place. The two lungs may contain as many as million alveoli, providing a huge total surface area for gas exchange to take place.
In fact, alveoli in the two lungs provide as much surface area as half a tennis court! Each time you breathe in, the alveoli fill with air, making the lungs expand. Oxygen in the air inside the alveoli is absorbed by the blood in the mesh-like network of tiny capillaries that surrounds each alveolus.
The blood in these capillaries also releases carbon dioxide into the air inside the alveoli. Each time you breathe out, air leaves the alveoli and rushes into the outside atmosphere, carrying waste gases with it. The lungs receive blood from two major sources. They receive deoxygenated blood from the heart.
This blood absorbs oxygen in the lungs and carries it back to the heart to be pumped to cells throughout the body. The lungs also receive oxygenated blood from the heart that provides oxygen to the cells of the lungs for cellular respiration. You may be able to survive for weeks without food and for days without water, but you can survive without oxygen for only a matter of minutes except under exceptional circumstances. Therefore, protecting the respiratory system is vital.
Fortunately, the respiratory system is well protected by the ribcage of the skeletal system. However, the extensive surface area of the respiratory system is directly exposed to the outside world and all its potential dangers in inhaled air.
Therefore, it should come as no surprise that the respiratory system has a variety of ways to protect itself from harmful substances such as dust and pathogens in the air. The main way the respiratory system protects itself is called the mucociliary escalator.
From the nose through the bronchi, the respiratory tract is covered in the epithelium that contains mucus-secreting goblet cells. The mucus traps particles and pathogens in the incoming air.
The cilia constantly move in a sweeping motion upward toward the throat, moving the mucus and trapped particles and pathogens away from the lungs and toward the outside of the body. What happens to the material that moves up the mucociliary escalator to the throat?
It is generally removed from the respiratory tract by clearing the throat or coughing. Coughing is a largely involuntary response of the respiratory system that occurs when nerves lining the airways are irritated. The response causes air to be expelled forcefully from the trachea, helping to remove mucus and any debris it contains called phlegm from the upper respiratory tract to the mouth.
The phlegm may spit out expectorated , or it may be swallowed and destroyed by stomach acids. Sneezing is a similar involuntary response that occurs when nerves lining the nasal passage are irritated.
This explains why it is so important to sneeze into a sleeve rather than the air to help prevent the transmission of respiratory pathogens. The amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood must be maintained within a limited range for the survival of the organism. Cells cannot survive for long without oxygen, and if there is too much carbon dioxide in the blood, the blood becomes dangerously acidic pH is too low.
Conversely, if there is too little carbon dioxide in the blood, the blood becomes too basic pH is too high. The respiratory system works hand-in-hand with the nervous and cardiovascular systems to maintain homeostasis in blood gases and pH.
It is the level of carbon dioxide rather than the level of oxygen that is most closely monitored to maintain blood gas and pH homeostasis.