On what continents rainforests were mostly destroyed

on what continents rainforests were mostly destroyed

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Asia. This continent is the largest of the seven, with 30% of the earth’s land mass and 60% of its population. It is connected to the main land mass of Europe, with the border defined somewhat by the Ural Mountains that run through Russia and the Bosphorus that cuts through lovemeen.com countries are split between Europe and Asia: Turkey and Russia. Etymology. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. " New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Ynigo Ortiz de lovemeen.com , he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from the Portuguese word Guine.

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Kongo forgoes most of the religious game in order to become a tall-building cultural behemoth. Here, I detail Kongolese strategies and counter-strategies. This item has been added to your Favorites.

Created by. Zigzagzigal Offline. Category: Classes. Languages: English. Guide Index. Legacy Guide. Victory Skew. Civ Ability: Nkisi. Unique Unit: Ngao Mbeba. Administration - Government and Religion. Administration - Wonders and City-States. Administration - Great People. Other Guides.

If you have the Rise and Fall expansion, click here for the updated guide. This guide is no longer updated, but will remain for the sake of those without on what continents rainforests were mostly destroyed Rise and Fall expansion. Note: This guide only covers content released prior to the Rise and Fall expansion.

Wherever the true faith may be, Kongo shall follow. In cultural pursuits, however, Kongo shall lead. The mighty Kongolose metropolises are home to great ingenuity in the arts and in the markets, and the people are well-housed and well-fed.

Your forested home shall be kept safe by the shield-bearers for a time, but soon the greedy empires of the world will attempt to shatter your idyllic kingdom. Be ready to defend it. How to use this guide. Iron Working Technology Classical era. Warrior Musketman Guilds Civic Medieval era. Woods Rainforest. Adjacency bonuses. Can be constructed multiple times in the same city Does not contribute towards the city's district limit. In this section, on what continents rainforests were mostly destroyed civ is graded based on how much it leans towards a specific victory type - not how powerful it is.

Any score of 3 or above means the civ or leader has some kind of advantage to the victory route above a hypothetical civ with no unique features. A score of less than 2 means some kind of aspect of the civ what happened to toxic junction website discourages a particular victory route. All values are subjective and may be edited in future. Kongo's civ ability gives you substantial advantages to the cultural game, in addition to some handy general bonuses.

There's a lot of stuff going on in the Kongolese civ ability, so I'm going to break it down somewhat chronologically. Relic bonuses. Mvemba a Nzinga's leader ability is perhaps the game's strangest one, altering the religious game considerably. Here's the downsides: You can't ever own a Holy Site You can't get access to worship buildings You don't have a good source of faith You can't found a religion Now, this sounds pretty bad on the face of it, but remember that if you're not playing a religious game, you generally won't build many if any Holy Sites anyway, as districts such as Campuses and Commercial Hubs become more important.

So, instead of concentrating what does a kidney cyst look like on an ultrasound those downsides, consider the advantages: You can access the founder and enhancer beliefs of a religion without having to found one yourself You have a really easy source of Apostles and hence relics At first, you won't have a huge amount of control over which religion spreads to your lands.

You can try sending some trade routes to a civ with an established religion to get a little bit of pressure going, but the loss of food and production from internal trade may make that a less than ideal choice. With a little luck, the religion you get will be one with good, appropriate founder, enhancer and follower beliefs, but that's not a guarantee.

To increase your chances of getting what does ebitda mean in accounting good religion, try settling a colony city away from the rest of your empire preferably on a different continent. Because you can't choose your religious beliefs as Kongo aside from the pantheonyou should look for the religion with the most suitable set of founder, enhancer and follower beliefs.

Here's a crude chart of which are good or not. Type of belief. Church Property Stewardship Tithe. Crusade Defender of the Faith. Lay Ministry Pilgrimage Religious Colonisation. Jesuit Education Reliquaries Work Ethic. While Kongo generally does best out of building tall cities and pushing for a peaceful cultural game, the Ngao Mbeba UU pushes, for a time, in a somewhat different direction.

While reasonable in defence thanks to their quick movement through woods and rainforests of which you'll want to keep plenty of for Mbanzas laterwhere they really shine is when they're part of an Oligarchy rush. The Oligarchy Rush. Kongo has quite a lot of unusual uniques already, but Mbanzas really make how to draw graffiti bubble letters interesting.

Neighbourhood districts usually arrive in the late-industrial era and their high housing contribution combined with the fact you can built lots essentially removes the limit on city population assuming you can provide enough food and amenities - which isn't as difficult late in the game. Mbanzas arrive two eras earlier, allowing your cities to grow huge sooner.

Large cities produce more science and culture, have a bigger district limit and are generally better. Getting to Mbanzas. The administration section covers the governments, policy cards, pantheons, religious beliefs, wonders, city-states and Great People which have particularly good synergy with Kongolese uniques.

Be aware that these are not necessarily the best choicesbut rather options that you should consider more than usual if playing as Kongo relative to other Civs.

Kongo might not be a threat to win religious victory, but they're certainly a huge threat for cultural victories and have decent early-rushing potential. If you like these guides and want to send a tip, you can click here! Awesome guide! But there are two mistakes: 1. You don't need to capture England's Archeological Museum to get 6 slots.

Capturing the city and building Museum yourself later will also give you 6 slots. Filling up all 6 won't give you 'Themed' automatically. Good to know, Thankyou Zigzagzigal [author] 14 Feb, pm. Forgot to mention - for now, I'm focusing on the new Rise and Fall civs, then probably the directly updated civs e. America, England before finishing up with the remaining civs like this one.

I will eventually release updated guides, but I'll be preserving the old pre-Rise and Fall guides for the sake of players without the expansion. Hi, I know your busy so please dont take this as me nagging.

I was just wondering if you were planning to update these guides tovreflect the rise and fall what job shall i do quiz features. Your guides are brilliant and im at a loss with a couple of the new mechanics. Zigzagzigal [author] 7 Feb, pm. From the 7 February update: - Citizens only provide 0. SCCBlazer 11 Jan, am. Well, that's a well known bug with Lavras. Most likely due to them being an unique district. Any other nation's Holy Site will be destroyed when captured by Kongo.

Max 11 Jan, am. Temples aren't destroyed, here's a screenshot. Zigzagzigal [author] 11 Jan, am. Apadana offers an extra couple of slots, making 11 in all. SCCBlazer 10 Jan, pm.

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Jul 27,  · In Cameroon, Ghana, and the Ivory, the increase in planted area was higher. As in Mesoamerica, sample countries in Africa were mostly deforested at the beginning of the study period. Of the five countries, we observed the largest amount of deforestation from to in . Jun 04,  · THE AMAZON RIVER TODAY. The Javari, a tributary of the Amazon river that forms the border between Peru and Brazil. Photo by Rhett A. Butler. Today the Amazon River is the most voluminous river on Earth, carrying more than five times the volume of the Congo or twelve times that of the Mississippi, draining an area nearly the size of the forty-eight contiguous United States. During the . The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the lovemeen.com Sea has played a central role in the history of Western lovemeen.comgh the Mediterranean is sometimes considered a part of.

The fauna of Africa , in its broader sense, is all the animals living in Africa and its surrounding seas and islands. The more characteristic African fauna is found in the Afrotropical realm.

Whereas the earliest traces of life in fossil record of Africa date back to the earliest times, [2] the formation of African fauna as we know it today, began with the splitting up of the Gondwana supercontinent in the mid- Mesozoic era. The isolation of Africa was broken intermittently by discontinuous "filter routes" that linked it to some other Gondwanan continents Madagascar , South America , and perhaps India , but mainly to Laurasia.

Interchanges with Gondwana were rare and mainly "out-of-Africa" dispersals, whereas interchanges with Laurasia were numerous and bidirectional, although mainly from Laurasia to Africa.

Despite these connections, isolation resulted in remarkable absences, poor diversity, and emergence of endemic taxa in Africa.

The first Neogene faunal interchange took place in the Middle Miocene the introduction of Myocricetodontinae , Democricetodontinae , and Dendromurinae. During the early Tertiary , Africa was covered by a vast evergreen forest inhabited by an endemic forest fauna with many types common to southern Asia. In the Pliocene the climate became dry and most of the forest was destroyed, the forest animals taking refuge in the remaining forest islands. At the same time a broad land-bridge connected Africa with Asia and there was a great invasion of animals of the steppe fauna into Africa.

At the beginning of the Pleistocene a moist period set in and much of the forest was renewed while the grassland fauna was divided and isolated, as the forest fauna had previously been.

The present forest fauna is therefore of double origin, partly descended of the endemic fauna and partly from steppe forms that adapted themselves to forest life, while the present savanna fauna is similarly explained. The isolation in past times has resulted in the presence of closely related subspecies in widely separated regions [8] [9] Africa, where humans originated, shows much less evidence of loss in the Pleistocene megafaunal extinction, perhaps because co-evolution of large animals alongside early humans provided enough time for them to develop effective defenses.

There are large gaps in human knowledge about African invertebrates. East Africa has a rich coral fauna [12] with about known species. More than species of Echinoderms and species of Bryozoa live there too, [13] as well as one Cubozoan species Carybdea alata.

Of Nematodes , the Onchocerca volvulus , Necator americanus , Wuchereria bancrofti and Dracunculus medinensis are human parasites. Some of important plant-parasitic nematodes of crops include Meloidogyne , Pratylenchus , Hirschmanniella , Radopholus , Scutellonema and Helicotylenchus.

Of marine snails, less diversity is present in Atlantic coast, more in tropical Western Indian Ocean region over species of gastropods with 81 endemic species. The land snail fauna is especially rich in Afromontane regions, and there are some endemic families in Africa e.

Achatinidae , Chlamydephoridae but other tropical families are common too Charopidae , Streptaxidae , Cyclophoridae , Subulinidae , Rhytididae. The African millipede Archispirostreptus gigas is one of the largest in the world. The soil animal communities tropical Africa are poorly known. A few ecological studies have been undertaken on macrofauna, mainly in West Africa.

The only endemic African insect order is Mantophasmatodea. About African species of dragonflies have been recorded. The migratory locust and desert locust have been serious threats to African economies and human welfare. Africa has the biggest number of termite genera of all continents, [31] and over 1, termite species. Of Diptera , the number of described African species is about 17, There live also 3, species of butterflies , being the best known group of insects.

Among the numerous species of African beetles are the famous sacred scarab , the centaurus beetle , the manticora tiger beetle and enormous Goliath beetles. Hotspots for butterflies include the Congolian forests and the Guinean forest-savanna mosaic.

Some butterflies Hamanumida daedalus , Precis , Eurema are grassland or savannah specialists. Many of these have very large populations and a vast range. North Africa is in the Palaearctic region and has a different species assemblage. Genera which are species rich in Africa include Charaxes , Acraea , Colotis and Papilio , most notably Papilio antimachus and Papilio zalmoxis.

The tribe Liptenini is endemic to the Afrotropics and includes species rich genera such as Ornipholidotos , Liptenara , Pentila , Baliochila , Hypophytala , Teriomima , Deloneura and Mimacraea.

The Miletinae are mostly African, notably Lachnocnema. Other endemic lycaenids include the genus Alaena. Endemic Pieridae include Pseudopontia paradoxa and Mylothris. Endemic skippers include Sarangesa and Kedestes.

The highest species diversity is in the Democratic Republic of the Congo , home to 2, species of which are endemic.

Africa is the richest continent of freshwater fish, with about species. The central rivers fauna comprises fish species, with endemics and only 33 restricted to small areas. Almost all of the amphibians of Madagascar species [42] are endemic to that region. The center of chameleon diversity is Madagascar. Of the lizards , many species of geckos day geckos , Afroedura , Afrogecko , Colopus , Pachydactylus , Hemidactylus , Narudasia , Paroedura , Pristurus , Quedenfeldtia , Rhoptropus , Tropiocolotes , Uroplatus , Cordylidae , as well as Lacertidae Nucras , Lacerta , Mesalina , Acanthodactylus , Pedioplanis , Agamas , skinks , plated lizards and some monitor lizards are common.

There are 12 genera and 58 species of African amphisbaenians e. Chirindia , Zygaspis , Monopeltis , Dalophia. Several genera of tortoises Kinixys , Pelusios , Psammobates , Geochelone , Homopus , Chersina , turtles Pelomedusidae , Cyclanorbis , Cycloderma , Erymnochelys , and species of crocodiles the Nile crocodile , the West African crocodile , two species of slender-snouted crocodile , and species of dwarf crocodile are also present.

There live temporarily or permanently more than bird species in Africa about of them passerines. The Afrotropic has various endemic bird families, including ostriches Struthionidae , mesites , sunbirds , secretary bird Sagittariidae , guineafowl Numididae , and mousebirds Coliidae.

Also, several families of passerines are limited to the Afrotropics. These include rock-jumpers Chaetopidae , bushshrikes Malaconotidae , wattle-eyes , Platysteiridae and rockfowl Picathartidae. Other common birds include parrots lovebirds , Poicephalus , Psittacus , various cranes crowned cranes , blue crane , wattled crane , storks marabous , Abdim's stork , saddle-billed stork , herons slaty egret , black heron , goliath heron , shoebill , bustards kori bustard , Neotis , Eupodotis , Lissotis , sandgrouse Pterocles , Coraciiformes bee-eaters , hornbills , Ceratogymna , phasianids francolins , Congo peafowl , blue quail , harlequin quail , stone partridge , Madagascar partridge.

The woodpeckers and allies include honeyguides , African barbets , African piculet , ground woodpecker , Dendropicos and Campethera. The birds of prey include the buzzards , harriers , Old World vultures , bateleur , Circaetus , Melierax and others. Trogons are represented by one genus Apaloderma. African penguin is the only penguin species. Madagascar was once home to the now extinct elephant birds. Africa is home to numerous songbirds pipits , orioles , antpeckers , brubrus , cisticolas , negrofinches , olivebacks , pytilias , green-backed twinspot , crimson-wings , seedcrackers , bluebills , firefinches , waxbills , amandavas , quailfinches , munias , weavers , tit-hylia , Amadina , Anthoscopus , Mirafra , Hypargos , Eremomela , Euschistospiza , Erythrocercus , Malimbus , Pitta , Uraeginthus , pied crow , white-necked raven , thick-billed raven , Cape crow and others.

The red-billed quelea is the most abundant bird species in the world. More than mammal species live in Africa. The current mammalian phylogeny recognizes the clade Afrotheria often viewed as a superorder , which includes the exclusively African orders, as well as others believed to be of African origin.

African Eulipotyphla include the subfamilies Myosoricinae and Crocidurinae. Hedgehogs include desert hedgehogs , Atelerix and others. The rodents are represented by African bush squirrels , African ground squirrels , African striped squirrels , gerbils , cane rats , acacia rats , Nesomyidae , springhare , mole rats , dassie rats , striped grass mice , sun squirrels , thicket rats , Old World porcupines , target rats , maned rats , Deomyinae , Aethomys , Arvicanthis , Colomys , Dasymys , Dephomys , Epixerus , Grammomys , Graphiurus , Hybomys , Hylomyscus , Malacomys , Mastomys , Mus , Mylomys , Myomyscus , Oenomys , Otomys , Parotomys , Pelomys , Praomys , Rhabdomys , Stenocephalemys and many others.

African rabbits and hares include riverine rabbit , Bunyoro rabbit , Cape hare , scrub hare , Ethiopian highland hare , African savanna hare , Abyssinian hare and several species of Pronolagus. Among the marine mammals there are several species of dolphins , 2 species of sirenians and seals e. Cape fur seals. Of the carnivorans there are 60 species, including the conspicuous hyenas , lions , leopards , cheetahs , serval , African wild dog as well as the less prominent and understudied Side-striped jackal , striped polecat , African striped weasel , caracal , honey badger , speckle-throated otter , several mongooses , foxes and civets.

The family Eupleridae is restricted to Madagascar. The African list of ungulates is longer than in any other continent. The largest number of modern bovids is found in Africa African buffalo , duikers , impala , rhebok , Reduncinae , oryx , dik-dik , klipspringer , oribi , gerenuk , true gazelles , hartebeest , wildebeest , dibatag , eland , Tragelaphus , Hippotragus , Neotragus , Raphicerus , Damaliscus.

Other even-toed ungulates include giraffes , hippopotamuses , warthogs , giant forest hogs , red river hogs and bushpigs. Odd-toed ungulates are represented by three species of zebras , African wild ass , black and white rhinoceros. The biggest African mammal is the African bush elephant , the second largest being its smaller counterpart, the African forest elephant.

Four species of pangolins can be found in Africa. African fauna contains 64 species of primates. Humans and their ancestors originated in Africa. Other primates include colobuses , baboons , geladas , vervet monkeys , guenons , macaques , mandrills , crested mangabeys , white-eyelid mangabeys , kipunji , Allen's swamp monkeys , Patas monkeys and talapoins. Lemurs and aye-aye are characteristic of Madagascar.

See also Lists of mammals of Africa. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Crosskey, G. White, The Afrotropical Region. A recommended term in zoogeography, Journal of Natural History, Vol. Westall et al. Gheerbrant, J. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol , 9 Nov. McCall, Implications of recent geological investigations of the Mozambique Channel for the mammalian colonization of Madagascar, Proc.

Winkler, Neogene paleobiogeography and East African paleoenvironments: contributions from the Tugen Hills rodents and lagomorphs. Benammi et al. Arkiv for Zoologi, Band 21 A. Lovett, Geographical patterns of old and young species in African forest biota: the significance of specific montane areas as evolutionary centres.

Pleistocene extinctions; the pivotal role of megaherbivores. Paleobiology; July ; v. Royal Soc. Series B, Vol.

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